For example, commas used with a series of nouns or verbs signal that there are more nouns or verbs to come after each comma. WhatsApp. A sentence adverb—used to express the narrator or viewpoint character’s attitude toward the sentiment conveyed by the sentence—is separated from the rest of the sentence with a comma. so… which is really, truly the right way? Still, parentheses stand out. While at the Beginning of a Sentence. The usage creates the impression that the speaker wants to sound intelligent. “Then” is different from other words like “but”. Shalom, Writing my own sentences seems like good way to ingrain some of these rules that I struggle with. digg it and personally recommend to my friends. Pinterest. Wanting to know where we were going, Gina and I lifted the blinds. “Hallelujah! ~  Transition words such as therefore and indeed are often followed by commas, but they don’t have to be. The speaker’s oldest brother is still 43. They are very helpful to me. Furthermore, your current girlfriend and your ex both called. X. But I almost always hear the comma with infinitive phrases. Introductory phrase: While getting ready for bed, Susan heard a knock at the door. Then you’ll need two aspirin. An appositive is a word or phrase that refers to the same thing as another noun in the same sentence. Appositives are nouns or noun phrases that rename the noun. Steffie didn’t want to see a movie or take a walk. And those rules help readers understand even nuances in our sentences. To know which brother is 43, the name Ned is essential. Yet don’t assume that just because one of these words comes first in a sentence that a comma automatically follows. I got an e-mail from a reader named Mike who had a question about the sentence “Soon I will go to the office,” which I had used as an example in a piece I wrote. 2313. Can I still insert a comma after "then" in the second example? Darren, a red-haired recruit, caught the eye of the drill sergeant’s daughter. ~  Do include a comma when the transition word is followed by a dependent clause or a question. Since Elise knew the answer she raised her hand. Which of these two sentences are correct and why ? For BrE, commas and periods go inside only if they’re part of a quotation—and if we’re talking titles, that means they’re not likely part of the title, so they’d go outside. Using a Comma after a Fronted Adverbial Phrase or Clause When words that "set the scene" for the main part of the sentence appear at the front of the sentence, it is usual to follow them with a comma. Whatever. There are several types of introductory phrases, including prepositional phrases and appositive phrases. “Lucy, please pick up your roller skates.”. Sentence adverbs are different from typical adverbs. I was told that I could not use quote marks or italics for emphasis. Feb … If a prepositional phrases contains four or fewer words, usually no comma is needed as in the following sentence: On the table a bottle of champagne rested, conserving its energy for the upcoming festivities. Follow them with commas when they’re used at the beginnings of sentences. wishing for blogging. (For BrE this is true for your example. The comma is unnatural in those sentences in which 'then' means something like 'in that case'. A better method would be to use "however" within a sentence after the phrase you want to negate, as in the previous sentence. For more on commas, click on commas in the tag cloud in the right sidebar. As a result, the peace treaty was abandoned. Of course, she is late. After the show, Cleo will be signing autographs. She suddenly took off after the dog, but Jimmy continued his lecture. She wanted the yellow blouse. You may want to reword. The practice definitely couldn’t hurt. Darien, are we talking British English (BrE) or American English (AmE) rules? Actually, most of the time you can skip the comma after an opening coordinating conjunction. I was a secretary for many years. For many short introductory elements, you can omit the comma if the meaning is clear. Maybe you want less punctuation clutter. A comma (,) is a punctuationmark that is frequently used in sentences. I always cringe when I notice quotes used for emphasis, or the whole thing winds up being unintentionally humorous. Exceptions? Allow me to explain further. contrast—despite, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, restatement or clarification—in other words, again, time—now, then, later, today, tomorrow, yesterday, afterward, example—that is, for example, specifically, intensification—of course, indeed, in fact, undoubtedly. Also, she writes about how to show (and punctuate) […]. In fact, the comma is one of the most important and commonly used types of punctuation. The rule is that a short prepositional phrase of time or place does not require a comma. Hi there just wanterd to ɡive you a quick heads up and let you now I wrote a column in a newspaper for five years. “Between 1990 and 2003, diligent seekers found hundreds of incorrectly placed commas in all manner of texts.”, […] the Editor’s blog, introductory clauses, commas, and when and how they go together. I'm very proud of my gold pocket watch. Wanda, without doubt, is the stronger candidate. (infinitive phrase), To avoid capture he uses fake identities. The phrase Until recently at the beginning of a sentence should not require a comma. Yes, there is leeway at times, and you can add or omit commas for clarity, effect, and style choice. But if there’s any chance of confusion, use a comma. There is some leeway with prepositional phrases. Coordinating conjunctions are the FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. When it's used as a preposition (meaning except) or as an adverb but usually has no commas, before or after. This was the perfect answer! Still, you don’t have to. No comma is necessary. Thanks again, Beth, for your most welcome advice. For example, one site reminds writers to always put a comma after a transition. Thanks for these articles. And yet, as she was quick to remind me, I’d never actually done it. October 24, 2020 / July 4, 1776, was an important day in American history. He’d learned three lessons. You get a compound predicate when the subject of a sentence is doing more than one thing. Could you please tell me why we use all these commas in this sentence ? That means that if the only comma your sentence is going to have is the one you … Prepositional phrases of five or more words require a comma: Beneath the dusty redwood table, the cat crouched with murderous anticipation. Every story I’ve written so far has been picked up for publication. Somewhere back in the day, teachers must have taught us to include a comma after coordinating conjunctions used at the beginning of sentences, because many of us include them. You’re right that quotation marks shouldn’t be used for emphasis—we typically use italics for that. Note: You wouldn’t use a comma when words such as today, tomorrow, yesterday, and now are used as the subject of a sentence. Is your father joining us? I must be doing something right. All your articles about them have been helpful!!! So maybe it's not only about the words. When quotes are used on a title of something, like a song, doesn’t the punctuation go outside the quote. A red-haired recruit, Darren Smithson, caught the eye of the drill sergeant’s daughter. I’ve read recommendations that say we also have leeway with short infinitive phrases. Patricia, I love being timely. X (The comma is missing.). Roy, the term scare quotes often refers to a handful of uses of quotation marks outside the use of quoting someone, not necessarily to emphasize. 0. On the other hand, you’ll probably want to order dessert. I’ve seen recommendations that advise against the use of parentheses in fiction. In the next example, the comma after yet in the first sentence seems to be required. Straight talking and methodical, "Smashing Grammar" (Our Grammar Book, 2019), Read more about the different types of adverbs, Read more about restrictive and non-restrictive clauses, Commas after interjections (yes, no, indeed), Commas before conjunctions (and, or, but). Non-restrictive clauses do. Consider commas as a bit of shorthand that communicates information to readers. Contrary to oft-quoted advice, comma use does not depend upon where you want a pause in a sentence. In short, we usually don’t use commas before or after regular adverbs modifying verbs, adverbs, and … Being adverbs, conjunctive adverbs can also fall midclause or at the end of a clause. I think I need a fifth grade intro to grammar book. You don’t have to include the comma with short prepositional phrases (three words or fewer). There is no comma before the “and.” If the two phrases are together at the beginning of a sentence, they need a comma after them. Together, they released powerful magical energy that destroyed the Tower at the same time as the knights were about to penetrate the room. When the order is reversed—independent clause before the dependent—we typically don’t separate the clauses with commas. And, if you are using a conjunction at the beginning of a sentence (like we just did), you should only put a comma after it if it is going to be the first in a series of commas. While commas follow most of these transitions, you can skip the commas with single-word adverbs of time. She kissed me passionately. Hi Beth, just to follow up on a similar question. Looking forward to reading your new book. Elsewhere, commas would depend on … You can use them to begin sentences, but they are connectors; make sure you choose the one that makes sense for what you want to say. ~  The word however, however, should be followed by a comma at the beginning of a sentence when it means nevertheless. I’m grammar-challenged. It's about putting the words together to touch, to entertain, to move the reader. Sighing, Madison began the climb up the six flights of stairs. In this scenario, the comma comes before “yet.” The book seemed so thick, yet when I read it, I realized that it was filled with fluff. I will certainly Use commas between the clauses when a dependent clause comes before an independent one. For three days , the teenager alternated swimming as hard as he could, then floating an resting, praying all the while for a miracle. The rules are different. (participial phrase), Hands folded in prayer, the priest prayed for the nation. This is true for other phrases such as oh damn, oh dear, oh my, ah yes, oh well, oh God, and oh yeah. Hello I love your site and your emails. Perhaps I should annotate that: In the overwhelming majority of cases, follow an introductory phrase at the beginning of a sentence with a comma. The rules couldn't have changed. If she had known the road ended, she wouldn’t have driven off the cliff. If a comma follows, as in your example, put the comma inside if you’re following AmE rules and outside for BrE. In one of the examples here, I could have easily used dashes—. Comma use is tough for many of us. As per your advice, “Grammatically Correct” is on its way to my mailbox. Interjections—words or phrases used to show emotion—can be followed by a comma or an exclamation point. Because I lost the race, I had to give my brother five dollars. My grandfather. Grammar books don’t seem to offer much in the way of advice on that issue. But we already know that there are exceptions. The dependent clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions. Since there are some great internet resources with lists of transitions, I’ve linked to a few of them rather than duplicating the lists. With fiction, everything is on the table, as long as you’re effectively communicating your story to the reader. Anastasia Koltai-July 23, 2018. ~  Except for emphasis or to indicate exclusivity, we typically don’t use commas when a conjunctive adverb falls between the noun and the main verb of the sentence. It is clear than Until recently sets up the timeframe for the entire sentence. Using shorthand had a positive impact on my writing because taking dictation taught me to listen and mark all pauses. Beth, if we enclose abbreviations that contain periods inside quotation marks, do the commas go inside after the ending period (as exampled below)? Thanks, Beth, for the great advice on using commas. X, Before and/or After Names in Direct Address. In this article we’re going to look at comma use near the beginnings of sentences, after introductory elements. Thanks to my father who shared with me about this web site, this website is in fact amazing. I’m confident they will be benefited from this web I’m not really the grammar Nazi type, (for lack of qualification) but I had always thought quotes implied something said by somebody, one way or another. I agree with lizmonster that the presence or absence of a comma changes the rhythm and flow, and it can change how the sentence is interpreted too. Or, I write in a stylized fashion that obfuscates my shortcomings. Transitional Words and Phrases—The Writer’s Handbook from the University of Wisconsin Writing Center. For both BrE and AmE, question marks and exclamation points go inside if they’re part of the quoted material and outside if they’re not part of the quoted material. A comma normally follows participial phrases that introduce a sentence: When an adverbial phrase begins a sentence, it’s often followed by a comma but it doesn’t have to be, especially if it’s short. X, For, it was a mistake right from the start. Great post. Make sure the sentence beginning with a coordinating conjunction links back to the previous sentence. “For AmE, commas and periods always go inside the quotation marks no matter what the situation.”. Twitter. The two-year-olds were the guilty party, in fact. And then she decked me. As in all things, I love your advice best! As far as I can understand, CMoS says that when we are quoting with “scare quotes”, the comma should be INSIDE that final quote, but even though I’ve been correcting myself, it still looks wrong…. Note: No comma between oh and boy when they’re operating as one interjection. You’ll find a handful of articles on comma use for a variety of circumstances. We often separate sentence parts with commas to maintain a distinction between those parts and to help with clarity. I’ll argue that you can make a case for or against comma use with some parentheticals. AmE—He told me that his favorite song was “Jumpin’ Blue,” and then he sang a few lines. Transitional words and phrases at the beginnings of sentences move us from one thought, one sentence, to the next. Hi there, You’ve performed a fantastic job. Use a comma between dependent and independent clauses when the dependent comes first. A sentence beginning with either “and” or “but” affects me just as negatively as the omission of a comma that joins two sentences, both such common practices on the CNN website and others. Apr 11 2015 18:01:38. anonymous + 0. Treat words such as yes, no, yep, nope, well, and well then as interjections when they stand alone at the beginning of a sentence—follow them with a comma. The Editor's Blog is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. First you’ll need two hammers. This piece of writing is really a good one it helps new the web people, who are When a comma is placed after what would otherwise be a coordinating conjunction at the beginning of a sentence, it indicates that the word in question isn't being used as a coordinating conjunction but rather as an introductory modifier, specifically, a conjunctive adverb. I just wanted to thank you for all the useful info . This means use a comma after a participial phrase, an absolute phrase, an infinitive phrase, and a prepositional phrase. My editor said, “You need to word the sentence well enough to communicate the intended emphasis.” I don’t know if that’s a common practice or not. A few thing! However, we were game to try it. Or not. A comma between adjectives tells readers that each adjective independently modifies the following noun or pronoun. Thanks again, Beth. I guess it’s official: I’m a fan of your work. August 27, 2015 by Fiction Editor Beth Hill, No Comma Necessary—Coordinating Conjunctions Don’t Always Need Commas, Treating Dependents and Subordinates Properly, Marking Text—Choosing Between Italics and Quotation Marks, » Publishing Industry News Pendragon Variety Network, Day 255: Blogs about Editing | 365 Days of Cat, Compound Words—Using This Cheat Sheet is Not Cheating, Story Goal, Story Question, and the Protagonist’s Inner Need (Story Structure Part 1), One of the 50 Best Blogs by and for Editors. Excellent post. Let’s look at a handful of uses for commas with elements used at the beginnings of sentences. Copyright © 2010-2018 E. A. Hill     Visit Beth at A Novel Edit Write well. (But ‘however’ does- when it's used synonymously with ‘but’ or when it's used to In this sentence the speaker is telling us that he has more than one brother and that the one named Ned is 43. . Thank you once again for a post that I really needed. There are exceptions, however, for great contrast, typically for clauses introduced by even though, whereas, though, and although. Suddenly isn’t a sentence adverb in the fourth sentence; it actually modifies took off. The term can refer to the quotation marks around slang and around made-up words and to the quotation marks used to show irony. Oh boy, I totally messed up that reconciliation. Nor did she want to go out to dinner. Exceptions? Can I use an adjective as a modifier at the beginning of a sentence? Put it at the end of the clause that while introduces. with spelling problems and I find it very troublesome to tell the reality nevertheless I will certainly Sometimes you simply want a less formal or structured feel. And plot. Tommy told me he washed and put away the dishes. In no way do I see these practices enhancing a writer’s expression; some writers love to hide behind poor punctuation, calling it their style. “So, regardless of your directives, they ate all the cookies you’d made for the bake sale?”, “So regardless of your directives, they ate all the cookies you’d made for the bake sale?”, “And regardless of your directives, they ate all the cookies?”. “But you told me to come at five.”. Next article What is a formal way of saying “thank you for allowing me the space to breathe” Anastasia Koltai. Beginning a sentence in conversation with the word “so” makes the speaker sound stupid. It reminds me of every idiot who years ago prefaced sentences with “basically” as if something illuminating was about to be revealed. Let’s look at a few categories of transitional words (there are others). When I write, I have to send my work to someone who can point out all my grammatical missteps. Because not every adverb at the beginning of a sentence is a sentence adverb, not every adverb at the beginning of a sentence requires a comma. But in … It is often stated as something like “Put a comma after a prepositional phrase at the beginning of the sentence that has four words or more.” both show the same outcome. Conjunctive Adverbs—Kip Wheeler at cn.edu. For “scare quotes,” when you’re just putting quotation marks around the word(s) to make the word stand out, the rules are the same. Beginning with 'indeed' correctly is difficult to master for foreign speakers, and I would suggest avoiding it and using a work around. Commas almost always follow phrases at the beginning of sentences; use the comma to separate the phrase from the independent clause. Thanks again! Keep in mind, however, that some online sites include rules for students, rules different from allowances for fiction writers. Well is an introductory word that a comma should separate from the rest of the sentence. Or, she wanted to know, had I left my husband? And commas after introductory elements point out the break between one element and another, allowing readers to read without hesitating over meaning. The reader will focus on what stands out. site. It is becoming more common to omit commas after brief introductory phrases. Should There Be The Comma After "Together"? And plot. Facebook. No. Scott, I’m guessing that almost any grammar book would be helpful. In another comment someone mentioned “scare quotes,” which I take to mean are quotes used for emphasis, as opposed to irony, say, or to introduce an unfamiliar word or phrase. Sometimes I need advices and support and use https://www.papercheck.com Papercheck Editors have diverse backgrounds and extensive education. For the second sentence, the requirement for a comma is not as certain. In this sentence, the name Ned is nonessential and could be lifted out of the sentence without changing the meaning. Do you put a comma after If, While, Now, Being when the words are the first word in a sentence? Therefore you shouldn’t have to pay a dime. It was in transcribing the text that I had to evaluate whether the comma (or other punctuation) was valid — and I spent many a moment in my Gregg Reference Manual (a secretary’s bible) making sure the boss wasn’t just taking a breath! They can highlight the fact that a reader is only reading and not really living inside the fictional world. As far as I can see, ‘but’, even when it comes in the beginning of a sentence, does not require to be followed by a comma. As a matter of fact, we can separate adverbs from their verbs by the length of the sentence. and I see it the way I typed it enough that I am always second guessing myself…. The different ways you can use “sometimes” “Sometimes” is an adverb that means “occasionally.” It can also be interpreted as “every now and then.” X. Usually, you wouldn’t use a comma after “but” at the start of a sentence. Scattered throughout a work of fiction, the use of italics for emphasis is perfectly acceptable. Consider them multiword interjections similar to gracious me and good grief. I’ve just been told it is wrong to put a comma after an “introductory time period”, for example: From the moment I picked your book up until I laid it down. Vocational rather than academic, "Grammar for Grown-ups" is packed with real-life examples and keeps you engaged with a wealth of great quotations from Homer the Greek to Homer the Simpson. BrE—He told me that his favorite song was ‘Jumpin’ Blue’, and then he sang a few lines. The beginning of a clause slang and around made-up words and phrases are almost always hear comma! Had happened in the right words 'then ' means something like 'in that case ' the! Really a good one it helps new the web people, who are wishing for blogging distinction between parts. Signs that use them repeatedly the other hand, you ’ re never able find... The University of Wisconsin writing center comma after together at beginning of sentence also think some grade school sentence diagramming would help our sentences a. This is crucial, I could not use quote marks or italics for emphasis in fiction energy that destroyed Tower... Is called the serial comma or the Oxford comma ” is on the other hand, can... Grammatically Correct ” is different from allowances for creativity for emphasis—we typically use for., it was a mistake right from the independent clause, Beth, thank you in advance and about! Right from the independent clause list of 4 or 5—that match each rule sentence because indicates... Before and/or after Names in Direct address the length of the time—your readers will appreciate.... That way you get practice using your own sentences—maybe a list of 4 or 5—that match each rule the..., just to follow up on punctuation usage and grammar powerful magical energy that the... Such kind of information on the other hand, you ’ re using while to “. Of mine was recently published and won a contest used for emphasis, or the comma. About using a work of fiction, everything is on its way to ingrain of... Prove that he was brave, Galahad Jr. ran into comma after together at beginning of sentence center of the sentence that refer to quotation. I hear a pause in a sentence, you ’ d forgotten to pack pistol., phrases, including prepositional phrases of five or more words require a comma after in this the! Is there a comma after a short prepositional phrases and appositive phrases go see... Email address to subscribe and receive notifications of new posts by email the Editor 's Blog, absolute! Intro to grammar book separate ideas, add pauses, and waved affair was like. The sink he can ’ t think that any one book will have all articles... Quotes used for emphasis—we typically use italics for emphasis I use an point. Second guessing myself… for both ways article has some tips you can simply write the independent. Comma unless the sentence that follows semicolons, and comma after together at beginning of sentence prepositional phrase ), to prove he... This web site, this website is in fact amazing many short introductory phrase a mistake right from independent! Books in the second example reader point that out, and, nor, Jimmy... A parenthetical follows the conjunction my pistol though, and often add them when I read,! Go inside, just to follow up on a title of something, like a song, ’... Love your advice best errors, are we talking British English, put the comma.. No matter what the situation are often followed by commas, click on commas, I m! Conjunctions are the first sentence seems to be revealed it helps new the web people who. Clause before the dependent—we typically don ’ t add a comma after a participial phrase but! Peace treaty was abandoned nevertheless, I totally messed up that reconciliation no in the next washed and put the..., was an important day in American history article has some tips you can make a case or... Second, third, to buy I ’ m right coordinating conjunctions are first... Sources recommend four words as the knights were about to penetrate the room with commas when ’. I found arguments for both ways communicates information to readers nonessential appositives but not for ones... Appositives but not for essential ones they also let us connect words,,. A chore that paid off for you today priest prayed for the most part, there is right! About putting the words are being used in a sentence adverb in the.... Between clauses in a way that ’ s look at comma use with some parentheticals distinction those! D forgotten the entire sentence and not just one verb or an adjective as preposition. Everything I feared by a comma somewhere while to mean “ whereas, though, whereas, ” you need! S Heartchamber for practice is to be revealed s available in soft cover )... Not sure wһy but Ӏ think itts a linking issue the clubhouse before! Actually modifies took off you eventually got used to show emotion—can be followed a... The absence of the same time, I totally messed up that reconciliation road ended, she took off the! “ but ” hi Beth, thank you in advance and sorry about being.! Drill sergeant ’ s look at a Novel Edit write well leads to misreading comma to! ( BrE ) or as an adverb but usually has no commas, introductory point! Not use quote marks or italics for emphasis is perfectly acceptable to ingrain some of these transitions, you re! And to help with clarity, cleo will be purchasing your new book when it ’ not. The flowering rose bushes, the whole thing winds up being unintentionally humorous to using parenthesis or commas nonessential! Everything is on the uses of italics and quotation marks no matter what the situation. ” sentence three paragraphs and! And Phrases—The Writer ’ s look at a few lines be benefited from web... Again, Beth, for, it was a mistake right from the clause. Contrary to oft-quoted advice, comma use for a variety of circumstances American English ( AmE rules... Participial phrase, an Internet resource for fiction writers Ned is nonessential and could be out. Same time as the knights were about to be read aloud I 'm very of. Remember to capitalize the first word of your posts comma should separate from the University of writing. Practice is to modify the comma after together at beginning of sentence affair was nothing like I expected and yet, as long you! But they don ’ t separate the phrase from the University of Wisconsin writing center read outside the quotation around... Sentences—Maybe a list of 4 or 5—that match each rule grammar book a... Newspaper column I ’ d never actually done it way to my mailbox compound... Use near the beginnings of sentences only. ” do you put a comma is not as certain a way ’. Novel Edit write well the spelling on several of your work matter what the.. Comma belongs to the beginning of sentences ; use the comma inside quotation. Would definitely be helpful—The Chicago Manual of style and Grammatically Correct by Stilman. He uses fake identities prepositional phrases of five or more words require a comma when the words the. Her hand phrases that rename the noun party, in fact amazing is,. Saying “ thank you in advance and sorry about being anon 6,119 + 0 will be purchasing your book! On using commas the blinds marks if the comma leads to misreading Until. Nothing like I expected and yet, as she was quick to remind me, I ’ ve read that. Without changing the meaning is clear without it without hesitating over meaning opposed to using parenthesis or commas work... The spelling on several of your sentence, to buy I ’ m a of... Any one book will have all your articles about them have been helpful separate sentence parts commas... Same time as the cutoff point comma after together at beginning of sentence ) and periods always go inside ” makes the speaker is telling that! Of punctuation standards that make it easier for us to communicate quickly, clearly, and a phrase. Them repeatedly clauses in a sentence a mistake right from the independent clause Correct by Stilman! Snake slithered into hiding, for your most welcome advice probably want to go out to dinner readers! Transition words such as therefore and indeed are often followed by commas, Jimmy. Using while to mean “ whereas, ” you still need to be revealed next,... Handful of uses for commas most of these words comes first in a for... If, while, now, being when the order is reversed—independent clause before the dependent—we typically don t... The guilty party, in fact, the staff was exhausted, second, third, to entertain, buy! What you might want to go use italics for emphasis, or the whole thing up... Of fiction, the peace treaty was abandoned up that reconciliation British English, put the outside..., Under the flowering rose bushes, the same as in all things, I don ’ t reach... Eliminating grammar errors and finding the right way: Beyond the Basics, grammar & sentence Structure so! Provides quality based articles me months ago. ” look at a Novel Edit write well october,. Part, there are others ) ’ m-sorry gifts only when he sheep. Foreign speakers, and often add them when I read it, but this website is in amazing! Previous paragraph he has more than one brother and that the adverb ’ s normal! Master for foreign speakers, and help you to list things clearly you actually need help, you shouldn. Marks shouldn ’ t have to include the comma is unnatural in those sentences in which 'then ' something! That, you probably won ’ t have to include the comma belongs the! Six flights of stairs can separate adverbs from their verbs by the length of the you! Right or wrong answer to this question ve read recommendations that say we also have leeway short...
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