Nevertheless, Livia and Octavian clearly reached a rather unique understanding, and thereby remained married for the next 51 years... despite the fact that they had no children apart from a single miscarriage. 3. A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BCE, hoping to restore the normal running of the Republic. He even invaded Britain twice. Things then only got worse, in 31 BCE, when a disagreement between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war, what has been described as the Final War of the Roman Republic. If it works; don’t fix it!. Father Gaius Julius III Caesar (124bc-84bc) Mother Aurelia. He had nine children by Agrippina but, alas, only six lived to adulthood. Gaius Octavius [95] Gaius Octavius [94] plebians... [91-93] Gaius Octavius [90] unknown. Except... of course... for Julia the Sandwiched (Sandwiched Latin for the in-between).]. He advanced inland, and established a few alliances. Claudia Marcella Minor His rule through patronage, military power, and accumulation of the offices of the defunct Republic became the model for all later imperial governments. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillius wrote, "Not even in the provinces were married women safe from him.". The calendar was then regulated by the movement of the moon, and this had left it in a mess. and his mother Livia Drusilla, forbade Antonia to attend her eldest son’s funeral. Octavia Major. He served with distinction, winning the Civic Crown for his part in the Siege of Mytilene. His father and namesake, Marcus Antonius Creticus, was the son of the great rhetorician Marcus Antonius Orator who had been murdered and decapitated by order of Gaius Marius at the end of 87 BCE. ... republicans! Gaius julius Caesar or Gaius Julius Caesar in modern English spelling (13 July, 100 BC – 15 March, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. Caesar now had a secure base from which to launch an invasion of Britain. She also became guardian of Antony's remaining children from his unions with both Fulvia and Cleopatra, a hoarde of kids that included: • Iullus Antonius (Fulvia), Slekten førte sitt stamtre tilbake til Julus, sønn av den trojanske prinsen Aeneas, som ifølge legenden var sønn av gudinnen Venus. Coins bore his likeness, and he was given the right to speak first during Senate meetings. Dictator Gaius Claudius Crassus (c. 337 BC) [?] Julius Caesar was born Gaius Julius Caesar in Alba Longa, Rome. Han ble senere diktator på livstid og utarbeidet mange reformer, både sosialt og politisk. But of course, this is clearly not a problem for true love. His brief biographies of notable Greek and Roman figures are renowned not only for their views of ancient life, but also for their study of character. GigaNerd17 35,001 views. This Tirumvirate was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Julius Caesar From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cicero stated that Pompey would say as a joke about Balbus, that he was not a person of any importance. She was born in Athens, Greece and after 36 BCE was brought to Rome by her mother along with her siblings and half-siblings. Between then and 31 BCE, he was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar. Geoffrey of Monmouth: From History of the Kings of Britain. For example, Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum, "the gloomiest of men." Gaius Julius Caesar IV then stepped in and, through a series of maneuvers, became an acceptable candidate for consul while also agreeing to Pompey’s request to distribute land to the veterans of his campaigns. Caesar was a gifted writer, with a clear and simple style. She was deified by Claudius who acknowledged her title of Augusta. Gaius Julius Caesar was born about -163 in Rome, Roma, Italy, son of Gaius Julius Caesar and N.N. A last revolt of the Gauls, led by Vercingetorix, was suppressed in 52-51 bc. Free Account. Caesar was acclaimed Imperator in 60 and 45 BC. Considering that his great, great, great, great, great, great, great grandfather was Mars, this might actually make complete sense. Claudia Marcella Major Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship. Pompey and Crassus had been at odds for a decade, so Caesar tried to reconcile them. On Caesar's return to Italy in September 45 BC, he filed his will, naming his grandnephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian, later known as Augustus Caesar) as his principal heir, leaving his vast estate and property including his name. Despite his service with Caesar, he was a republican at heart. Augustus' control over the majority of Rome's legions established an armed threat that could be used against the Senate, allowing him to coerce any of the Senate's decisions... like naming him ‘Augustus’. Octavia was his fourth wife (his third wife Fulvia having died shortly before). Hans far, Gaius Julius Cæsar den eldre, var praetor. The tales were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate him. The texts written by Caesar, an autobiography of the most important events of his public life, are the most complete primary source for the reconstruction of his biography. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. Several specialists in headache medicine believe that instead of epilepsy, a more accurate diagnosis would be migraine headache. Nevertheless, his great-great-grandfather Gaius Octavius fought as a military Tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War. The other conspirators crowded round to offer support. Clearly, their parents really wanted to be able to count on their children. Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!" [Talk about a strong family tendency to back the wrong horse(s)...!]. He was killed at age 17 by Caesar's adopted son Octavianus. After spending the first months of 47 BC in Egypt, Caesar went to the Middle East, where he annihilated the king of Pontus; his victory was so swift and complete that he mocked Pompey's previous victories over such poor enemies. With the passage of the lex Titia on 27 November 43 BC, the Second Triumvirate was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus. During his early career, Caesar had seen how chaotic and dysfunctional the Roman Republic had become. Despite scattered outbreaks of warfare the following year, Gaul was effectively conquered. Caligula, Tiberius’ adopted grandson, succeeded the Emperor upon his death. Appius Claudius Caecus [?] ], • Atia Balba Prima - mother of Quintus Pedius who served as a general and consul. When Caesar returned to Rome in 47 BC, the ranks of the Senate had been severely depleted, so he used his censorial powers to appoint many new senators, which eventually raised the Senate's membership to 900. But then... Suetonius’s Caligula, clause 23, mentions how Caligula might have poisoned her. Also Carpe Jugulum, Terry Pratchett, Harper, New York, 2008. A naval battle was held on a flooded basin at the Field of Mars. Decimus Claudius Drusus, aka Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, aka Drusus the Elder... et al [97] Tiberius Nero I (=Livia Drusilla Augusta) [96] Drusus Claudius Nero [95] ... Consul Tiberius Claudius Nero [?] Tiberius named his eldest son after his brother (a departure from Roman naming convention), and Drusus did likewise. Marcus Junius Brutus (possible son of Julius’ lover, Servilia Caepionis). --- others which did not survive, Antonia’s husband, Drusus, was a stepson of her uncle Augustus, second son to Livia Drusilla, and brother to future Emperor Tiberius. In the Roman Republic, this was an honorary title assumed by certain military commanders. The problem, of course, was that Julius Caesar’s wives and children did not fare all that well... and thus his blood line pretty well expired with precious little to show for all of his troubles. He was born to Gaius Caesar and Aurelia Cotta. To pay for these, he borrowed money from Crassus. She wore neither excessive jewelry nor pretentious costumes; she took care of the household and her husband (often making his clothes herself), and was always faithful, if not dedicated to him (and/or her status). She never fully recovered from the death of her son and retired from public life, spending her final years dressed in mourning. Caesar would later fight these institutions to become dictator of Rome. Hailing from a prominent family, Caesar quickly rose to political power. During the spring of 56 BC, the Triumvirs held a conference, as Rome was in turmoil and Caesar's political alliance was coming undone. In October 45 BC, Caesar resigned his position as sole consul, and facilitated the election of two successors for the remainder of the year, which theoretically restored the ordinary consulship, since the constitution did not recognize a single consul without a colleague. Drusus was born shortly before Livia divorced Tiberius Nero and married Augustus (17 January, 38 BCE), giving rise to rumors that Augustus was the real father... despite the difficulty faced by the fact that Augustus had not yet met Livia when Drusus would have had to have been conceived. When Livia Drusilla died in June 29 CE, Antonia took care of Caligula, Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, Julia Livilla and later Claudia Antonia (Claudius's daughter through his second wife Aelia Paetina), and her younger grandchildren. The term of his governorship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one. [*] Equestrian was the lower of the two aristocratic classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the patricians (patricii), an hereditary caste that monopolized political power during the regal era (to 501 BCE) and during the early Republic (to 338 BCE). Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.li.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin prose. Son of Gaius Julius Caesar, III and Aurelia Cotta She was one of the first Roman women to have coins minted in her image. She was the daughter of Julius Caesar's sister Julia Caesaris Minor. Refusing to accept Tiberius, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. It has no basis in historical fact and Shakespeare's use of Latin here is not from any assertion that Caesar would have been using the language, rather than the Greek reported by Suetonius, but because the phrase was already popular when the play was written. Gaius Octavius Thurinus (later known as Augustus). There, Caesar was presented with Pompey's severed head and seal-ring, receiving these with tears. Then, he outlawed professional guilds, except those of ancient foundation, since many of these were subversive political clubs. His death led to the end of the First Triumvirate and the resulting civil wars between Julius Caesar and Pompey. Other works historically have been attributed to Caesar, but their authorship is in doubt: These narratives were written and published annually during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front." Geni requires JavaScript! Pompey escaped to Egypt, where he was assassinated. Germanicus Julius Caesar Also... before Augustus married Livia, Tiberius Claudius Nero I was declared Drusus' biological father. About FamilySearch. Pompey managed to escape before Caesar could capture him. His powers within the state seem to have rested upon these magistracies. Crassus became the other consul. Both Octavian and Mark Antony promoted the cult of Divus Iulius. [But, not literally.] Consul and Dictator Appius Claudius Caecus (“the blind”; c. 340-273 BCE) [?] The pirates demanded a ransom of 20 talents of silver, but he insisted that they ask for 50. Thus backed, Caesar was elected consul for 59 bc despite Optimate hostility, and the year after (58 bc) he was appointed governor of Roman Gaul. The most important change, however, was his reform of the calendar. She was celebrated for her virtue and beauty. Gaius Julius Caesar IV [94] Gaius Julius Caesar III (=Aurelia Cotta) [93] Marcia Regia (=Gaius Julius Caesar II) [92] Quintus Marcius Rex [91] Two teenage sons [90] Ancus Marcius [89] Pompilia (=Marcius) [88] Numa Pompilius (=Tatia)... or direct from Romulus (=Hersilia) [87] Romulus (=Hersilia) [86] Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares) [85] Numitor [84] Procas [83] Aventinus [82] Romulus Silvius [81] Agrippa [80] Tibernius Silvius [79] Capetus [78] Capys [77] Atys [76] Alba [75] Latinus Silvius [74] Aeneas Silvius [73] Silvius (I) [72] Aeneas (=Lavinia) [71] Anchises (=Inanna) [70] Capys (=Themiste) [69] Assaracus (=Aigesta) [68] Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris) [67] Erichthonius (=Astyoche) [66] Dardanus (=Batea) [65] ---- Enki (=Electra) [5] Anu and Antu [4] Anshar and Kishar [3] Lahmu and Lahamu [2] Tiamat and Absu [1]. After the death of Augustus in 14 CE, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. In response to Caesar's earlier activities, the tribes in the north-east began to arm themselves. In 43 BCE, Octavian, equipped with the first of his name changes, joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in a military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate. Rome was on the brink of civil war. The first goal was accomplished when Caesar defeated Pompey and his supporters. He returned the following year, better prepared and with a larger force, and achieved more. Octavia’s first husband, Marcellus, was a man of consular rank, a man with a rank worthy of her -- he was consul in 50 BCE. [Pompey was later shown the door by Julius Caesar, Balbus’ brother-in-law. But such an assumption is probably wrong. Caesarion, with Cleopatra VII, born 47 BC. All rights reserved. Decimus Claudius Drusus (Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, Drusus the Elder... et al) [97] Livia Drusilla Augusta (=Tiberius Nero I) [96] Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus (=Aufidia) [95] ... Appius Claudius Pulcher (c. 212 BC) [?] Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most influential political and military leaders in history, helped establish the vast empire ruled by Rome. Easy come; easy go. The tribunes, who were Caesar's agents, vetoed this motion, but they were driven out of the Senate chamber. When Caesar returned to Rome, the Senate granted him triumphs for his victories, ostensibly those over Gaul, Egypt, Pharnaces, and Juba, rather than over his Roman opponents. It formally deified Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of a god"). He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, and his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at Actium, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name that raised him to the status of a deity. After Drusus' death, Antonia never remarried, though she outlived him by nearly five decades. Provoking a war with the Parthian Empire, he was defeated and killed at Carrhae in 53 bc. On his return to Rome, he was elected military tribune, a first step in a political career. Caesar also obtained honors to increase his prestige: He wore the robe, crown, and scepter of a triumphant general and used the title imperator. By Atia Balba Caesonia Having had enough of Caligula’s anger at her criticisms and of his behavior, she committed suicide. This Julia married Marcus Atius Balbus, a praetor and commissioner who came from a senatorial family of plebs status. Perusia was besieged by Octavian's men by the time Tiberius Nero arrived, and when the town fell in 40 BCE, he was forced to flee first to Praeneste, and then to Naples. ], 5. As a politician, Caesar made use of popularist tactics [albeit, tactics designed to attain popular support in ensuring a royalist, elitist, divinely ordained, exclusivity in the power and management of the affairs of the empire]. He and Livia formed the role model for Roman households. It engaged in the legally sanctioned murder of a large number of its opponents to secure funding for its 45 legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius. In 4 CE, Augustus finally decided in favor of Tiberius, his stepson, but he had apparently preferred to adopt Germanicus as a son and name him his heir. He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. [63] Erasmus, however, notes that the more accurate Latin translation of the Greek imperative mood would be "alea iacta esto", let the die be cast. When he heard the commotion from the Senate chamber, Antony fled. In relations to the other Roman Emperors of this dynasty, Tiberius was the stepson of the Emperor Augustus, great-uncle of the Emperor Caligula, paternal uncle of the Emperor Claudius, and great-great uncle of the Emperor Nero. Caesar then went off to raid Britain and put down a revolt in Gaul. "); this derives from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Lucius Marcius Philippus, a consul of 56 BC, children (by Gaius Octavius): However, for himself, Suetonius says Caesar said nothing. His uncle by marriage (oxford classical, Hornblower p.925) was the famous military leader and seven times consul, Gaius Marius and in an effort to keep Julius from becoming a great man in the history of Rome, Marius appointed him flamen diales, or priest of Jupiter. In 54 BCE, her great uncle Caesar was anxious for her to divorce her husband so that she could marry Pompey... the latter who had just lost his wife Julia (Julius Caesar's daughter and thus Octavia's cousin once removed). Gaius Julius Caesar IV [JULIUS CAESAR] was a Roman military and political leader. In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, he was appointed dictator for life. Crassus himself was killed when truce negotiations turned violent. At first life was great for him in Rome; he was young, well liked, and he had his wife, but soon Caesar heard of Sulla's hostility toward him and he fled to Bythinia, under orders from the praetor of Asia, where he sought to raise a fleet under King Nicomedes, which was his first military campaign, in 81Bc (Caesars-might and madness-Brownjohn p. 48). Hans erobring av Gallia i Frankrike utbredte det romerske imperium helt til Atlanterhavskysten, noe som har gitt ringvirkninger helt opp til i dag. Thus, he instituted a massive mobilization. On 14 January, Livia’s child was born. Even so, one can see certain family resemblances. On the way across the Aegean Sea, Caesar was kidnapped by pirates and held prisoner. Others, admitting that he could be ruthless, insist that the Republic had already been destroyed. He served as a praetor in 62 BC and he managed to obtain the government of Sardinia. 1. After Mark Antony's suicide following the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, Octavian had removed all obstacles to his power and henceforth ruled as Emperor, from 27 BCE on, under the honorary title Augustus. He quickly gained a significant victory in 46 BC over Cato, who then committed suicide. Julia Caesaris Major Even more noteworthy, she was pregnant with a second son, Nero Claudius Drusus (also to be known as Drusus the Elder). ], Married: After the triumph, Caesar set out to pass an ambitious legislative agenda. He ran against two powerful senators. This act was said to have outraged Antonia, who was grandmother to Gemellus as well as to Caligula. [Let’s see now: “prima”, “caesonia”, “tertia”... which would amount to (in English) as: “one, two, three”. His De Bello Gallico (On the Gallic War), in which he described Gaul and his Gallic campaigns, is a major source of information about the early Celtic and Germanic tribes. Livilla Reformarbeidet ble brått stoppet da han ble myrdet. In January 49 BC, Caesar crossed the Rubicon river (the frontier boundary of Italy) with only one legion and ignited civil war. 1) Clodia Pulchra (43–40 BC) deserts.] The years af… After he had first marched on Rome in 49 BC, he forcibly opened the treasury, although a tribune had the seal placed on it. By … Roughly six months earlier, at a time when Livia was, roughly, six months pregnant, Tiberius Claudius Nero (I)... who as previously noted, had backed the wrong horse... was persuaded or forced by Octavian (or made an offer he couldn’t afford to reject) to divorce Livia. A supporter of his cousin, the Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar, Lucius was a key member of the senatorial faction which strove to avoid civil war between the Roman Senate and his nephew Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) in the aftermath of the Dictator's assassination. Consul and Dictator Appius Claudius Caecus (“the blind”; c. 340-273 BC) [?] At the same time he saw to it that young Caesar was appointed flamen dialis, one of an archaic priesthood with no power. Caesar went to serve his quaestorship in Spain after her funeral, in the spring or early summer of 69 BC. Misc. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. Slekt førte sitt stamtre tilbake til Julus, sønn av den trojanske prinsen Aeneas, som ifølge mytene var sønn av gudinnen Venus. 2. The conquest of the north was soon completed, while a few pockets of resistance remained. He ordered a census be taken, which forced a reduction in the grain dole, and that jurors could only come from the Senate or the equestrian ranks. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Octavian restored the outward facade of the Roman Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate. He turned to legal advocacy and became known for his exceptional oratory accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption. Marius and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated to be the new high priest of Jupiter, and he was married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia. She was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known also as Octavian), and half sister of Octavia Major. Julius Caesar is seen as the main example of Caesarism, a form of political rule led by a charismatic strongman whose rule is based upon a cult of personality, whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order, and being a regime involving prominence of the military in the government. No classical source mentions hearing impairment in connection with Caesar. In practice, of course, he retained his autocratic power, even if it took several years to determine the exact framework by which a formally republican state could be led by a sole ruler... but sigh, where’s there’s a political will, there’s a way. Near the end of his life, Caesar began to prepare for a war against the Parthian Empire. It is not known which of the Julias gave evidence against Publius Clodius Pulcher, when he was impeached for impiety in 61 BCE. 1. Caesar’s triumph in a civil war in the 40s bc made him the absolute ruler of Rome, but political jealousies among his opponents motivated them to assassinate him.Culver Pictures. Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Cæsar ble født i Roma, i en patrisierfamilie kalt gens Iulia. Gaius Iulius Gaii filius Gaii nepos Caesar Imperator, ab anno 42 a.C.n. This addressed the underlying problem that had caused the Social War decades earlier, where individuals outside Rome and Italy were not considered "Roman", thus were not given full citizenship rights. Hey! Gaius Julius Caesar (July 13 ,100 BC -March 15 ,44 BC ) was a Roman military leader and dictator . One might notice a curious aspect of Roman Royal Power: Despite kings having multiple wives, concubines, and alternative amusements... by the time of Rome as an alleged Republic, the idea of only one marriage per male (at a time) had seemed to have taken control. Caesar was already in Crassus' political debt, but he also made overtures to Pompey. Sejanus was eventually beheaded on Tiberius’ order (for plotting regicide, as opposed to poor administrative skills). [Gee, I wonder why?]. • Atia Balba Caesonia - mother of first Emperor, Augustus, and Octavia Minor (fourth wife of triumvir Mark Antony) [Check out the photo in the link; if Atia doesn't have a case of defamation of character, then there's no justice. Sulla had ruled as dictator for several years, and Caesar now followed suit. Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. [Check out this guy's bust. Great games and celebrations were held in April to honor Caesar’s victory at Munda. Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar. Caesar then pursued Pompey to Egypt, arriving soon after the murder of the general. The historian Tacitus considers her an ideal Roman matron and thinks highly of her. Popular with the army and the people, Caesar was elected joint consul with Bibulus in 60BC. Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BCE), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply OCTAVIA, was the only daughter born of Gaius Octavius' second marriage to Atia Balba Caesonia, niece of Julius Caesar. Octavia Minor When Claudius became emperor after his nephew’s assassination in 41 CE, he gave his mother the title of Augusta. This excerpt,describing the Veneti’s decisive defeat, was a piece of propaganda intended to impress Caesar’s enemies and win new supporters. Gaius Julius Caesar OCTAVIANUS Thurinus AUGUSTUS (23 September 63 BCE – 19 August 14 CE) was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 31 BCE until his death. The Lucca Conference renewed the First Triumvirate and extended Caesar's governorship for another five years. The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture, and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum. Julius Sabinus, a Gaul of the Lingones at the time of the Batavian rebellion of AD 69, claimed to be the great-grandson of Caesar on the grounds that his great-grandmother had been Caesar's lover during the Gallic war. Tiberius Nero (I) was forced to choose sides, and in his distrust of Octavian, he cast his lot with Mark Antony... the first of several bad choices. in Roma, , Italy and died 19 August 14 in Nola, Abadia A Isola, , , Italy. In 40 BCE, the family was forced to flee Italy in order to avoid Octavian's proscriptions, and joined with Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, later moving on to Greece. Rejecting an offer from the Armenian King Artavasdes II to invade Parthia via Armenia, Crassus marched his army directly through the deserts of Mesopotamia. To minimize the risk that another general might attempt to challenge him, Caesar passed a law that subjected governors to term limits. However, the result was another Roman civil war, which ultimately led to the establishment of a permanent autocracy by Caesar's adopted heir, Gaius Octavianus. He was the father of the Roman Emperor Tiberius (TIBERIUS) and Nero Claudius Drusus (the Elder), father-in-law to Antonia Major and Antonia Minor, grandfather to the Emperor Claudius (CLAUDIUS) Germanicus, and Livilla, great-grandfather to the Emperor Caligula [CALIGULA] and Empress Agrippina the Younger, and great-great-grandfather to the Emperor Nero [NERO]. The narrative recounts stories that later became the source material for much great British literature and art, such as the tales of Merlin and King Arthur, and King Lear and his daughters Goneril, Regan, and Cordelia. Other names for Gaius were Gaius Julius Caesar ROMAN EMPIRE, Gaius Octavius ROMAN EMPIRE, and Octavius ROMAN EMPIRE. - 15 March 44 B.C. Philippus raised Atia's children alongside his own son and daughter from a previous marriage and arranged Octavia Minor's first marriage, to the consul and senator Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor. With a weak central government, political corruption had spiraled out of control, and the status quo had been maintained by a corrupt aristocracy, which saw no need to change a system that had made its members rich. Likewise, the younger of the two sisters of Julius Caesar is sometimes named Julia Minor, (Minor Latin for the younger) but... again... not to be confused... in this case... with Julia the Younger, Augustus‘ first granddaughter. 3. The marriage had to be approved by the Senate as she was pregnant with her first husband's child and, furthermore, this was a political marriage to cement the uneasy alliance between her brother, Octavian (Augustus) and Mark Antony. Arrogant and confident, Caesar mocked them and he laughed at their demands. Grandson from Julia and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed. The contemporary Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent catalogued the surviving editions of the Commentaries, and translated them to Turkish language. During the late 60s and into the 50s BCE, he formed political alliances that led to the so-called "First Triumvirate," an extra-legal arrangement with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). Aurelia became involved in the petition to save her son and along with her brother Gaius Cotta, defended young Caesar against the dictator. Her funeral was a public one, with her sons-in-law carrying her to the grave. Caligula was rumored to have had his young cousin Gemellus beheaded, to remove him as a rival to the throne. Around this time, TCN I married his relative Livia Drusilla, whose father Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus was from the same gens... another republican to boot [pardon the suggestion]. The alliance... not to mention the marriage... was severely tested when Mark Antony abandoning Octavia and all of the children for his former lover, Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt. Ex-partner of Eunoë of Mauretania Antonia had many male friends and they included the wealthy Jew, Alexander the Alabarch, as well as Lucius Vitellius, a consul and father of future Emperor Aulus Vitellius. The trees are large because for the adoption. Vercingetorix's attempt in 52 BC to unite them against Roman invasion came too late. He told them that they did not know whom they had caught and told them his ransom should have been much more. This emperorship was never an office like the Roman dictatorship which Caesar and Sulla had held before him. While there, he is said to have encountered a statue of Alexander the Great, and realized with dissatisfaction that he was now at an age when Alexander had the world at his feet, while he had achieved comparatively little. ", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus? Obviously, there was a LOT of sibling and cousin rivalry! Pompey and Crassus both ran for the consulship—an office held by two men—in 70 bc. This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents. Jealous of his younger rival, he determined to break Caesar's power, an objective that could not be achieved without first depriving him of his command in Gaul. Plutarch’s portrait of the great Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar reveals a generous spirit behind his savvy military and political leadership. Birth of Ptolemy XV 'Caesarion', Pharaoh of ... "Divus Julius", "Imperator", "Patris Patriae", "Julius Caesar", Ruler of the Roman Empire, Roman Dictator, (technically not Emperor but sometimes called 1st EMPEROR of Rome), Kejsare, Dictator of Rome (This is THE Julius Caesar immortalized by William Shakespeare, Eerste keizer van Rome (Caesar), Father Gaius Julius Caesar the Elder (proconsul of Asia in 90s BC), Mother Aurelia (related to the Aurelii Cottae), First marriage to Cornelia Cinnilla, from 83 BC until her death in 69 or 68 BC, Second marriage to Pompeia, from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC, Third marriage to Calpurnia Pisonis, from 59 BC until Caesar's death, Julia, with Cornelia Cinnilla, born in 83 or 82 BC. In this passage, Appian chronicles Julius Caesar’s continued ascent to power following the Gallic Wars and the formation of the First Triumvirate in 60 bc. Caius Iulius Caesar (vagy Gaius Julius Caesar [ejtsd júliusz kaiszar, illetve júliusz cézár]; i. e. 100. július 12./13. At that time Celtic Gaul, to the north, was still independent, but the Aedui, a tribe of Roman allies, appealed to Caesar for help against another Gallic people, the Helvetii, during the first year of his governorship. • Cleopatra Selene II (Cleopatra), and After the death of Tiberius’ son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23 CE, the quality of Tiberius’ rule declined and ultimately ended in a raving terror. Nevertheless, Caesar divorced Pompeia over the scandal, citing such nonsense as his wife needing to be above suspicion... but not necessarily he himself being above suspicion... or, for that matter, being above most anything else. Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavorable and thus void the new law, but he was driven from the forum by Caesar's armed supporters. When Livia was six months pregnant, Tiberius was persuaded or forced by Octavian to divorce Livia. His family was respected, but not especially rich or influential. Eunoë, queen of Mauretania and wife of Bogudes. Gaius Julius Caesar IV [JULIUS CAESAR] was a Roman military and political leader. Later Caesar's enemies accused him of giving in to Nicomedes's unnatural desires. Caesar also married again, this time Calpurnia, who was the daughter of another powerful senator. He was also a favorite with Augustus, his grandfather-in-law, who, for a period of time, considered him as heir to the Empire. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. Tiberius was made emperor, but he was highly unpopular and the legions rioted on the news. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, a move which intimidated the triumvirate's opponents. He could not do both in the time available. According to the traditional Republican constitution, this office was only to be held for six months during a dire emergency. Gaius Caesar (adoptive), oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. Presumably, Octavia continued to live with her husband from the time of their marriage (she would have been about 15 when they married) to her husband's death when she was about 29. He went on a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes's fleet, but he spent so long at Nicomedes' court that rumors arose of an affair with the king, which Caesar vehemently denied for the rest of his life. Caesar's dead body lay where it fell on the Senate floor for nearly three hours before other officials arrived to remove it. His death was surrounded by speculation that he may have been poisoned by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, governor of Syria, under the orders of the emperor Tiberius, who would obviously be acting as a less than ideal guardian under the circumstances. By concentrating the power of the Republic in one man, Caesar opened the way for the creation of the Roman Empire ruled by an emperor. Drusus died in June 9 BCE in Germany, due to complications from injuries he sustained after falling from a horse. [Curiously, ‘Balbus’ in Latin means stammer. According to Plutarch, as Caesar arrived at the Senate, Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. Tiberius Claudius Nero I [96] Drusus Claudius Nero [95] ... Consul Tiberius Claudius Nero [?] His mother Julia was a daughter of Lucius Caesar (consul 90 BCE, censor 89 BCE), another Marian victim slain with Antonius Orator. Julia Caesaris Minor (101 BC-51 BCE) was the second sister of Julius Caesar. 4. He was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of auxiliaries to repel an incursion from the east. 16870305536220235 ii. He was the brother of Sextus Julius Caesar III, consul in 91 BC. Finally, he enacted a series of reforms that were meant to address several long-neglected issues, the most important of which was his reform of the calendar. Marcus Atius Balbus (105 BC–51 BC) was the son and heir of an elder Marcus Atius Balbus (148–87 BCE) and Pompeia. Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, he was adopted by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. In 40 BCE, Octavian and Mark Antony finally reconciled. In 85 BC his father died. ), where he met enthusiastic support, but where, according to Cicero, Cassius was planning to kill him at this point. He withstood the Siege of Alexandria and later he defeated the pharaoh's forces at the Battle of the Nile in 47 BC and installed Cleopatra as ruler. Julius Caesar joined the Imperial Youth at age 11 and trained with them to become a strong warrior until leaving at age 16. Caesar marched into Celtic Gaul with six legions, defeated the Helvetii, and forced them to return to their home area. He then left for Macedonia and proved a capable administrator, governing "courageously and justly". In the ensuing chaos, Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would end in the formation of the Roman Empire. Thus, the Julian calendar opened on 1 January 45 BC. When Arsinoe IV, Egypt's former queen, was paraded in chains, the spectators admired her dignified bearing and were moved to pity. Cleopatra visited Rome on more than one occasion, residing in Caesar's villa just outside Rome across the Tiber. But he had many enemies in the Senate, including the orators Cato the Younger and Cicero, who feared his growing strength. Plutarch was a Greek biographer and essayist who lived in the 1st century ad. Julius Caesar leads the Romans in Civilization IV. ... republicans! Antonia Minor, also known as Antonia the Younger or simply Antonia (31 January 36 BCE-September/October 37 CE) was a daughter of Roman politician Mark Antony and Octavia Minor (the latter from whom she inherited the more impressive lineage). Some of Rome's Gallic allies had been defeated by their rivals at the Battle of Magetobriga, with the help of a contingent of Germanic tribes. This united the two men, who also found common cause with Pompey. Three of her half-brothers were consuls: Gaius Aurelius Cotta in 75 BCE, Marcus Aurelius Cotta in 74 BCE and Lucius Aurelius Cotta in 65 BCE. On 14 January the child was born, and was named Decimus Claudius Drusus, which was later changed to Nero Claudius Drusus [aka Drusus the Elder]. On his return in 67 BC, he married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla, whom he later divorced. building the Gate of Octavia and Porticus Octaviae in her memory). Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified. Unable to gain office, he left Rome again and went to Rhodes, where he studied rhetoric; he returned to Rome in 73 bc, a very persuasive speaker. Charles V ordered a topographic study in France, to place in Gallic Wars in context; which created forty high-quality maps of the conflict. The elder of the two sisters of Julius Caesar is only known from a passage in which Suetonius mentions her two grandsons, Lucius Pinarius and Quintus Pedius. Crassus, ever eager for military glory, went to his post in Syria. in English). (The letterform Æ is a ligature of the letters A and E, and is often used in Latin inscriptions to save space.). Caesar felt that it would be much safer far away from Sulla should the Dictator change his mind, so he left Rome and joined the army, serving under Marcus Minucius Thermus in Asia and Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia. 3. One of the most influential political and military leaders in history, Gaius Julius Caesar helped establish the vast empire ruled by Rome. Gaius Julius Cæsar was the name of several members of the gens Julia in ancient Rome. In 48 BC, he was reappointed dictator, only this time for an indefinite period, and in 46 BC, he was appointed dictator for 10 years. His father (praetor 74 BCE) died in 71 BCE, during his command against Mediterranean piracy. Gaius Julius Caesar (c.100 - 44 BC) was born - according to legend by Caesarean section - to a noble family. Antonia Minor [97] Octavia Minor (=Marcus Antonius, aka Mark Antony) [96] Atia Balba Caesonia (=Gaius Octavius) [95] Julia Caesaris Minor (=Marcus Atius Balbus) [94] Gaius Julius Caesar III (=Aurelia Cotta) [93] Marcia Regia (=Gaius Julius Caesar II) [92] Quintus Marcius Rex [91] Two teenage sons [90] Ancus Marcius [89] Pompilia (=Marcius) [88] Numa Pompilius (=Tatia)... or direct from Romulus (=Hersilia) [87] Romulus (=Hersilia) [86] Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares) [85] Numitor [84] Procas [83] Aventinus [82] Romulus Silvius [81] Agrippa [80] Tibernius Silvius [79] Capetus [78] Capys [77] Atys [76] Alba [75] Latinus Silvius [74] Aeneas Silvius [73] Silvius (I) [72] Aeneas (=Lavinia) [71] Anchises (=Inanna) [70] Capys (=Themiste) [69] Assaracus (=Aigesta) [68] Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris) [67] Erichthonius (=Astyoche) [66] Dardanus (=Batea) [65] ---- Enki (=Electra) [5] Anu and Antu [4] Anshar and Kishar [3] Lahmu and Lahamu [2] Tiamat and Absu [1]. When the younger Caesar was about 18, he was ordered by the then dictator of Rome, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, to divorce his young wife Cornelia. Gaius Julius Caesar [lower-alpha 2] (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.li.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose. The history of Caesar's political appointments is complex and uncertain. This was often attributed to Claudius, Marcus’ great, great grandson... suggesting more than just a mere genetic linkage. Drusus was the youngest son of Roman Empress Livia Drusilla from her marriage to Tiberius Nero (I). In 31 CE, Antonia exposed a plot by her daughter Livilla and Tiberius’ notorious Praetorian prefect, Sejanus, to murder the Emperor Tiberius (as well as Caligula) and to seize the throne for themselves. [Apparently at a time when priesthoods were a bit more sought after.] Antonia was one of the most prominent Roman women. In 35 BCE Octavian gave Livia the unprecedented honour to rule her own finances and dedicated a public statue to her. The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion. In 55 BC, Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by two Germanic tribes, and followed it up by building a bridge across the Rhine and making a show of force in Germanic territory, before returning and dismantling the bridge. Under Caesar, a significant amount of authority was vested in his lieutenants, mostly because Caesar was frequently out of Italy. Come to think of it... there probably wasn't then either.] The royal barge was accompanied by 400 additional ships, and Caesar was introduced to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharaohs. Married: Then Octavian (Augustus) adopted Tiberius. • Atia Balba Tertia - mother of Lucius Pinarius (who was a political supporter of Mark Antony) and who was sometimes referred to as Atia minor. ; ibidem mortuus 15 Martii 44 a.C.n. Father of Julia Caesaris and Ptolemy XV 'Caesarion', Pharaoh of Egypt Yeah, right. Caesar then cried to Cimber, "Why, this is violence!" Augustus had adopted Octavia’s son Marcellus as his heir, but Marcellus died of illness in 23 BCE. He asked the senate for permission to stand in absentia, but Cato blocked the proposal. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. In 59 BCE, Octavius sailed to Rome, to stand for election as consul. ], Married (16 BCE) Nero Claudius Drusus (brother to Tiberius Claudius Nero II, aka Drusus the Elder, a Roman general and consul), Children
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