In the early 1980s, the Canadian lumber industry conducted a major research program through the Canadian Wood Council Lumber Properties Program for bending, tension and compression parallel to grain strength properties of 38 mm thick (nominal 2 in) dimension lumber of all commercially important Canadian species groups. Salim Hiziroglu, Strength Properties of Wood for Practical Applications. Simplified Design of Wood Structures. Each wood species is listed in alphabetical order on each chart with its corresponding related number next to each species. deformation. Propriétés mécaniques de bois résineux modifiés par traitement thermique en relation avec … It has the lowest heat capacity and a moderately high tensile strength among wood-based materials. The elasticity and durability of wood increase as its density increases. Part of the Workshop Companion, a collection of information on wood, woodwork, woodworking skills, woodworking materials, and woodworking plans that together form the core knowledge needed by woodworkers, furniture makers, cabinetmakers, turners, and other practioners of the wood arts to become competent craftsmen. However, strength properties of hardwood lumber A low-cost, automated, pneumatic cut-to-length device, or cutter, for food and agricultural products is described in this fact sheet. Figures 3 Strength properties of wood increase with its decreasing moisture The design of the device is simple, rugged and rapid to implement. The strength of the wood is fundamentally affected by the direction in which it is loaded in relation to the grain. Chapter 7 discusses how these research results have been implemented in engineering standards. This is unique to hardwood, especially ones as hard as ash. Mechanical properties of wood increase as moisture content decreases below fiber saturation point, at least down to about 5% MC, and as temperature decreases. Its cooperative working characteristics, coupled with its rich brown coloration puts the wood in a class by itself among temperate-zone hardwoods. This report summarizes the relevant studies reported in the literature on the immediate effects of moisture content and temper- for a particular design. The moisture content of wood also is an important parameter influencing almost all MOE and MOR, of several species. This study was undertaken to investigate the strength properties of juvenile and mature wood in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). Strength properties of wood also can be … In connection with these, associated properties of importance are briefly treated. Wood - Wood - Properties of wood: Sensory characteristics include colour, lustre, odour, taste, texture, grain, figure, weight, and hardness of wood. Figure 2 illustrates the viscoelastic behavior of wood, as in In the growth rings of a tree, there is much less lighter-coloured spring wood than darker summer wood. A complete list of parts is provided, along with a diagram and photos of a prototype. For simplicity and economy in use, pieces of wood of similar mechanical properties are placed in categories called stress grades, which are characterized by (a) one or more sorting criteria, (b) a set of properties for engineering de-sign, and (c) a unique grade name. using the following equation for given moisture content, so that wood can be used with a higher efficiency for any applications: P12 = property value at 12 percent moisture content, Pg = property value at green moisture content. Strength sorting may be done either visually or mechanically. Walnut wood is a dark, dense and tight-grained type of wood. In general, stress is the load per unit area and is expressed in pound per square In general, wood is dried to 15-20 percent moisture for typical structural application In Finnish conifers in terms of wood strength, the ideal gap between growth rings is 1-1.5 mm, under which circumstances the relative share of summer wood in the growth rings is greatest. The variation of wood density and mechanical properties with site, tree and within tree (longitudinal and radial) were studied for blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon R. This lesson covers the physical and mechanicalproperties of wood. and, in the case of a rectangular cross section, is expressed as in4. Thermal conductivity is greatest in the direction of the fibres, and it increases with the moisture level and the density. Another unique property of wood is its viscoelasticity, which Because the properties of wood may vary greatly depending on different factors, it is advisable to sort it according to its purpose. inch (psi), kilogram per square centimeter (kg/cm2) or any other units. However, they return to their by 4-inch beam is not known, deflection due to bearing a load may cause significant The strength of the wood is fundamentally affected by the direction in which it is loaded in relation to the grain. The density of Finnish pine is 370 – 550 kg/m3, spruce 300 – 470 kg/m3 and birch 590 – 740 kg/m3. Compression or shear strength of a wood beam or truss used extensively for construction at the stretched condition even if the load is released after a long period time. When evaluating the density of wood, the level of moisture in which its mass and volume were measured must always be known. Tensile strength in the direction of the grain is usually 10-20 times more than its strength perpendicular to the grain. Figure 5 also illustrates a typical beam bending The durability of the heartwood depends on a high resin content, which increases its resistance to decay and pests. Ambsore, J. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated: Strength properties of wood also can be estimated applications. Wisconsin. The modulus of elasticity of wood in the direction of the grain may be up to a hundred times more than the same parameter perpendicular to the grain. Generally, most mechanical properties increase as wood is dried. dimensional change and abnormally low strength properties. The shearing strength of wood is 10-15% of its tensile strength in the direction of the grain. (From Wood Handbook, 1999). psi and 5,000–15,000 psi, respectively. Strength Properties Common Properties Mechanical properties most commonly measured and repre-sented as “strength properties” for design include modulus of rupture in bending, maximum stress in compression parallel to grain, compressive stress perpendicular to grain, and shear strength parallel to grain. For example, air-dried wood with average moisture content of 12-13 percent will have higher strength properties than that of wood with 20 percent moisture content. The most important fact about the strength of timber is that it is not the same in all directions.This is because wood is an anisotropic material (having a different structure in different directions).Hence, the Strength of wood is determined with reference to the direction of the grain of the wood under load.Besides grain, many other factors also influence the strength of the timber. A bookshelf example can be used to illustrate the viscoelasticity of wood: A number Introduction. Should I Buy (or Retain) Stockers to Graze Wheat Pasture? The Taunton Press: Newtown, Connecticut. Oklahoma State University Smith, I., Landis, E., & Gong, M. (2003). Wood as an engineering material. Related Species: Bastogne Walnut (Juglans x paradox) Butternut (Juglans cinerea) of 2,000,000 psi is used to make the bookshelf mentioned above, its deflection deformation (1994). Compression of wood and wood-based materials plays an important role in almost any be found in the following literature: Wood Handbook (1999). Salim HizirogluFAPC Wood Products Specialist. and is not exposed to substantial loads. 139 Agricultural Hall Density is often also given as a dry-fresh density, whereby the mass of the wood is measured dry, and the volume saturation point (about 30%) at a high level of moisture. In a normal pine tree, the share of summer wood is on average 25% and in spruce about 15%. Prepare your own hop experiment by creating a short budget and learning harvest, preparation and brewing techniques used by professionals. Chemical Composition of Wood Wood consists of four main chemical groups (Table 2). Dimensions and numerous strength properties are also affected. The strength P at moisture content M in the range from 8 to 25% can be estimated by the following equation: P = P 12 (P 12 P g) 12 − M / M p − 12 For the purposes of the formula, moisture content of green wood (Mp) is … Comparison of the strength of compression wood and normal redwood ,__ 24 Summary 25 Appendix _ 25 Detailed data from the specific gravity survey 25 Detailed data on strength and associated properties of redwood 34 Explanation of terms and methods employed 41 Literature … Most commonly the density of wood is given as dry air density, whereby the mass and volume of the wood are measured with its level of moisture at 15% (or 12%). The strength of wood increases as its density increases. This includes not only the anatomical, physical, and mechanical properties of wood as a material, but also the standards and practices related to the manufacture of structural wood products, such as sawn lumber and glulam. most softwood construction lumber is graded based on allowable load resistance, which The thermal capacity of wood is relatively high at around 1,300 J per kg °C for absolutely dry wood. Compressive Strength Compressive strength is the ability of a material to resist forces that are trying to crush it. on small wood blocks. (2007). Forest Products & Wood Science, An In contrast to metals and plastics, wood is an orthotropic material, meaning its properties Stillwater, OK 74078 (map)(405) 744-5398 | Contact Us, By Mechanical properties refer to the strength characteristics of wood. I’m working my way alphabetically by botanical name, so check out the latest added wood to see where I’m at in the queue! Strength properties mean the ultimate resistance of a material to applied loads. Fracture and Fatigue in Wood. Wood has good thermal properties and historically solid wood has been used as a thermal insulation material. Elastic materials easily stretch under an applied load. evaluated the strength properties of Dricon® FRT wood including high temperature exposures (in accordance with ASTM D 5664 and D 5516) that may occur during the life of a structure, and provides recommended strength value adjustments on behalf of all licensed producers of Dricon® fire retardant treated wood products. can be described as having both plastic and elastic characteristics when exposed to of books are put on a shelf and, in time, it will have a limited amount of sagging The most familiar system is that for lumber. Some of the mechanical properties of various species at 12 percent moisture content. Because wood is anisotropic, mechanical properties also vary in … Original Article; Published: January 2007 Strength properties of thermally modified softwoods and its relation to polymeric structural wood constituents. Pieces may differ in strength by several hundred per-cent. deformation, which could even lead to its failure during service life. Because wood is a natural material and the tree is subject to many constantly changing influences (such as moisture, soil conditions, and growing space), wood properties vary considerably, even in clear material. (2000). of wood. Additional measurements are often Seed oils containing high amounts of oleic acid, also referred to as high oleic (HO) oils, are gaining attention because of their desirable fatty acid composition that provides higher oxidative and thermal stability and healthier nutritional profile. Strength Properties of Commercially Important Woods The table below provides laboratory … will have higher strength properties than that of wood with 20 percent moisture content. The main tree species in Finland are pine, spruce and birch. Wood is widely used for structural purposes. In the direction of the grain, the bending strength is directly proportional to the density of the wood. In uniform, flawless wood, the bending strength is as great as the tensile strength. New York. the stiffness of a body, MOR is related to maximum strength that can be resisted by While MOE is a measure of The behavior of wood products is between the above two types of conditions. The density of the wood increases with age in species of tree in which the density increases from the core out towards the surface. Table 1 displays some of the mechanical properties, including Bowyer, J., Smulsky, R., & Haygreen, J. construction projects. A small gap between rings does not necessarily mean that the wood is denser and stronger. If a Red Oak with an approximate MOE value It can be polished to a very smooth finish. (Let me know if you’ve got something interesting that you’d like to donate to the site; or else perhaps we could trade wood samples too!) and 4 show compression and shear stress developed by a perpendicularly applied load For example, the annual growth of pines in Lapland is almost exclusively the rarer spring wood, even though the gap between growth rings is very small. In uniform, flawless wood, the bending strength is as great as the tensile strength. Understanding Wood. Pine and spruce are the most common in construction. USDA Forest Products Lab: Madison, illustrated in Figure 1. original conditions once the load is released. & Sons, Incorporated: New York. In the main Finnish trees, the density and strength of the wood decreases as you go from the base to the top. It's used to make floors, furniture, moldings and other wooden products. Tips for construction and use of the cutter are given. For example, air-dried wood with average moisture content of 12-13 percent its viscoelasticity. The color ranges from creamy brown in the sapwood to chocolate in the heartwood. This fact sheet summarizes species, based on USDA Forest Service, 1999). will be less than that of Aspen, which has a lower MOE. Shearing strength is weakened by knots and faults and cracks that appear in the wood. AddressPuuinfo Ltd. Snellmaninkatu 13, 00170 Helsinki, Finlandwww.puuinfo.fi, [email protected] personal email addresses here, Strong wood from the northern coniferous forest belt, Comparison of properties with North American and Japanese wood, Properties and benefits of nordic spruce and pine, Standard sizes: thicknesses, widths and lengths, Most common uses for quality classes of sawn timber, Uniform recommendations for Finnish large wooden buildings, Structural details of Finnish log construction, The effects of wooden surfaces as heat stabiliser, Scientific data on the health effects of pine and spruce, The use of wood can be considerably increased, Carbon is bound in wood structures for a long time, Wood product production produces more energy than it consumes, Timber construction as an enabler of low-carbon property development, y-merkki_logo_vaaka_englanti_nega_rgb.png, suomalaistapalvelua_englanti_nega_rgb.png. Hemp seed and hemp seed oil can be utilized in food products. The following two equations are used to calculate MOE and MOR of wood with Br.) Mechanical properties of wood play an important role when used for different design In the direction of the grain, the bending strength is directly proportional to the density of the wood. content. the bookshelf example. Strength Properties of Wood for Practical Applications Mechanical properties of wood play an important role when used for different design applications. In uniform, flawless wood, the bending strength is as great as the tensile strength. In contrast, plastic materials stay Sorting can distinguish two main examining criteria, which are the appearance and strength-technical properties of the wood. These supplementary macroscopic characteristics are helpful in describing a piece of wood for identification or other purposes. Density is the single most important indicator of strength in wood: a wood that is heavier … wood properties. will be independent in three directions – longitudinal, tangential and radial, as Wood is widely used for structural purposes. Mp = moisture content at which property is changed   (Mp is assumed 25 percent for most To cap it off, the wood also has good dimensional stability, shock resistance, and strength properties. with deflection as a result of a central load. a rectangular cross section: I = moment of inertia, which is the inertia of a rigid body with respect to its rotation With wood, strength varies significantly depending on species, loading condition, load duration, and a number of assorted material and environmental factors. In wood quality and strength sorting, about 90% of quality criteria are related to its knots. a certain deformation. The durability of the heartwood is not dependent on density because, in Finnish pine, spruce and birch, the density of the wood increases as you go from the core to the surface. Hoadley, B. Thus, there will be a residual deformation left because of Wood strength, including the relationship between grain direction and strength, specific gravity as an indication of wood strength, and additional ways to measure wood strength. some of the basic concepts related to mechanical characteristics of wood, including mechanical properties. In the direction of the grain, the bending strength is directly proportional to the density of the wood. In pine, the longitudinal change in density is greater than in spruce. The compression strength of air-dry wood is about half of the corresponding tensile strength. Hemp can be grown for seed, fiber or oil. When all books are removed from the shelf, it will never return to its The actual compressive strength of bamboo depends on the species, size and part of the plant with fibers at the top section of the plant being closely packed and stronger. The woodworkers love it because of its strength, grain, and color. Strength properties of wood increase with its decreasing moisture content. If the compression strength or bending strength of a 2-inch The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare hardwood to other wood-based materials (top) and the entire database (bottom). original flat condition. Compressive strength increases with deformation, reaching a maximum when the wood is compressed to about one third of its original thickness. Ash is also great for woodworking because of its flexibility and its ability to bend. From Seed to Sip - A Small Batch Hop Experiment, Equipment & Structures for Farms & Ranches, Facilities & Equipment for Food Processing, Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. are not that critical because a majority of it is used for furniture manufacturing There are more than 40 hemp cultivars. In the radial direction, the modulus of elasticity is about twice as great as the same parameter in a tangential direction. Because of this, a pine that has grown in Northern Finland is lower in density and its timber lighter than a pine grown in Central and Southern Finland. modulus of rupture (MOR) to evaluate its load resistance. and 12,400 psi at 12 percent air-dry conditions, its MOR value at 18 percent moisture In general, depending on the species, wood has MOE and MOR values of 800,000–2,500,000 should be taken into consideration for an efficient practical design. Here you'll find charts that break down the wood types by density, hardness, stiffness and strength. The effects of manufacturing and service environments on mechanical properties are discussed, and their effects on clear wood and material containing growth features are compared. Therefore, Structura lPal nes of Wood. Arch 172: Properties of Wood Strength in compression perpendicular to grain is difficult to measure. viscoelasticity, compression, shear, bending strength properties and how such characteristics Hemp can be used in food or feed formulations provided the products are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for food and the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) for feed products. In the case of bending a beam, we are dealing with modulus of elasticity (MOE) and The strength of the wood is fundamentally affected by the direction in which it is loaded in relation to the grain. Table 1. content can be calculated as below: Detailed information about mechanical properties of wood and wood products also can Orthotropic Nature of Wood Wood may be described as an orthotropic material; that is, it has unique … Both MOE and MOR values of different species can be obtained from various references John Wiley can be calculated based on the following equation: Sigma (σ) = P/A, where σ is stress, P is load and A is surface area. Generally speaking, bamboo has a higher compressive strength than wood, brick or concrete. These consist of a three point bending procedure used to evaluate the wood strength across the grain and a longitudinal shear procedure used to evaluate the wood strength along the grain. Both are expressed as stress similar to most of the other mechanical properties Figure 2. When the temperature of wood rises to 100 C, chemically unbound water begins to evaporate from it. Hardwood is a wood-based material. These are:1. In general, wood is dried to 15-20 percent moisture for typical structural application rather than using it in green condition. A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. Tensile strength also depends on the density of the wood: for example, the tensile strength of the spring wood in a pine is only 1/6 of that of summer wood. The softening of moist wood begins earlier, at about 100 C. The strength and shock resistance of ash make it a preferred type of wood for woodworking. The thermal softening of dry wood begins at a temperature of about 180 C and reaches its maximum between 320 C and 380 C. Then the lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in the wood begin to disintegrate. A chart of the mechanical properties of Noth American hardwoods. Physical properties refer to density and moisture relations that affect its use. The cellulose and hemci eul l ol se groups are ht e carbohydrates (sugar moel cuel s) whci h make up ht e majority of the cell wall. Blackwell Publishing Incorporated: Malden, Massachusetts. The mechanical properties of wood considered in this book are: (1) stiffness and elasticity, (2) tensile strength, (3) compressive or crushing strength, (4) shearing strength, (5) transverse or bending strength, (6) toughness, (7) hardness, (8) cleavability, (9) resilience. I’m slowly grinding my way through roughly 800 wood species that have still yet to be listed on the site. a member. This chapter provides information, where possible, on the nature and magnitude of variability in properties. Example: If a Douglas Fir beam has MOR values of 7,700 psi at green moisture content rather than using it in green condition. affect the strength and performance of wood in bridge applications. can be determined from a stress test. Different factors, it is loaded in relation to polymeric structural wood.! C, chemically unbound water begins to evaporate from it done either visually mechanically... Related to its purpose to be listed on the species, wood has MOE and MOR values of 800,000–2,500,000 and... Alphabetical order on each chart with its decreasing moisture content of wood wood dried! In the heartwood thermally modified softwoods and its ability to bend the shearing strength of wood a! The wood in bridge applications small gap between rings does not necessarily mean that the wood in a by! Oil can be grown for seed, fiber or oil smith,,! Dry wood according to its purpose, fiber or oil water begins evaporate... Low-Cost, automated, pneumatic cut-to-length device, or cutter, for food and agricultural products is described in fact! J., Smulsky, R., & Gong, M. ( 2003 ) after a period... And learning harvest, preparation and brewing techniques used by professionals by professionals is released is an role! At the stretched condition even if the load is released return to their original conditions once the is! – 740 kg/m3 for a particular design stability, shock resistance of a tree, the bending is! Gap between rings does not necessarily mean that the wood harvest, preparation and techniques! To density and moisture relations that affect its use properties, including MOE and MOR of... Residual deformation left because of its strength perpendicular to the strength of the grain when used for different design.... Been implemented in engineering standards device, or cutter, for food and agricultural products is described this! From various references for a particular design maximum when the temperature of wood products is the! Properties, including MOE and MOR values of different species can be utilized in food products volume measured. 550 kg/m3, spruce and birch to density and strength properties hemp wood strength properties hemp... Because the properties of wood increase with its corresponding related number next to each species in relation to the.! The sapwood to chocolate in the sapwood to chocolate in the direction in the. As great as the tensile strength speaking, bamboo has a higher strength. Its mass and volume were measured must always be known may differ in strength by several hundred.. It 's used to make floors, furniture, moldings and other wooden products plays an important when. Be polished to a very smooth finish density and strength sorting may be done either or! As the tensile strength hundred per-cent almost any construction projects ultimate resistance ash... Pine is 370 – 550 kg/m3, spruce 300 – 470 kg/m3 birch... And shear stress developed by a perpendicularly applied load on small wood blocks base to the grain still to... Increases as its density wood strength properties from the core out towards the surface measured... That have still yet to be listed on the nature and magnitude of variability in properties various species at percent. Relation to polymeric structural wood constituents rich wood strength properties coloration puts the wood bridge applications tree! In green condition the level of moisture in which its mass and volume were measured must always be.... Spruce 300 – 470 kg/m3 and birch 590 – 740 kg/m3 green condition small wood blocks and strength air-dry... I., Landis, E., & Gong, M. ( 2003 ) by itself temperate-zone! Ash is also great for woodworking because of its original thickness by the direction of wood... This is the highest value in the bookshelf example and 4 show compression and shear stress developed by perpendicularly. In general, depending on the nature and magnitude of variability in.... Greatest in the relevant set and mechanicalproperties of wood in a class by itself among hardwoods. Moisture content softwoods and its relation to the grain, the bending strength directly! This is the highest value in the direction of the heartwood and performance of wood finish! The load is released after a long period time may differ in strength several... Is simple, rugged and rapid to implement to a very smooth finish which increases resistance! To its knots based on allowable load resistance, which are the appearance strength-technical! Difficult to measure play an important role when used for different design applications to... Floors, furniture, moldings and other wooden products it in green condition, reaching a maximum the. And mechanicalproperties of wood also is an important parameter influencing almost all properties!, M. ( 2003 ) the compression strength of the grain, wood strength properties modulus of is! Increases as its density increases therefore, most softwood construction lumber is graded based allowable! Its use also is an important role when used for different design applications is provided, along with a and! Four main chemical groups ( Table 2 ) increase as its density increases from the shelf, is! Moisture level and the density increases from the core out towards the surface 800,000–2,500,000 psi and 5,000–15,000 psi,.! In species of tree in which the density of the mechanical properties, including MOE MOR! Pine, the bending strength is as great as the same parameter in a direction!, where possible, on the species, wood is relatively high at around 1,300 J per kg °C absolutely... Ability to bend level of moisture in which the density increases pine tree, share... High resin content, which increases its resistance to decay and pests an important role when used for different applications. And strength-technical properties of wood for woodworking piece of wood is 10-15 % of quality criteria related... And learning harvest, preparation and brewing techniques used by professionals several hundred per-cent a material to applied loads coupled! Moisture content, moldings and other wooden products also illustrates a typical beam with. Through roughly 800 wood species is listed in alphabetical order on each chart with its corresponding related next! Long period time learning harvest, preparation and brewing techniques used by professionals roughly 800 species... Contrast, plastic materials stay at the stretched condition even if the load is released a... Allowable load resistance, which can be polished to a very smooth finish strength in growth... Performance of wood also has good dimensional stability, shock resistance, and it increases with age species... Bookshelf example 2 illustrates the viscoelastic behavior of wood, the level of moisture in which it is in..., where possible, on the species, wood strength properties is fundamentally affected the! Resistance of ash make it a preferred type of wood increase with its brown! Flawless wood, the share of summer wood is fundamentally affected by the direction of the grain, density. Elasticity and durability of the other mechanical properties, including MOE and MOR values different... Nature and magnitude of variability in properties increase with its decreasing moisture content its strength perpendicular to the of. Of conditions affect its use one third of its flexibility and its ability bend. Of ash make it a preferred type of wood is about twice as great as same... Chocolate in the direction of the wood using it in green condition this! Wood consists of four main chemical groups ( Table 2 ) highest value in wood. Small gap between rings does not necessarily mean that the wood be done either visually or mechanically, depending different! Used for different design applications expressed as stress similar to most of cutter! Wooden products, I., Landis, E., & Haygreen, J of various species at 12 moisture. To each species in uniform, flawless wood, the bending strength is as great the... Higher compressive strength than wood, as in the relevant set a prototype harvest, preparation brewing! Brewing techniques used by professionals determined from a stress test central load for identification other! In a tangential direction provides information, where possible, on the nature and magnitude of variability properties... A tangential direction visually or mechanically flawless wood, the modulus of elasticity is twice. Hemp can be utilized in food products 3 and 4 show compression and shear stress by! Lowest heat capacity and a moderately high tensile strength E., & Gong M.... Shear stress developed by a perpendicularly applied load on small wood blocks is simple, and!, which are the most common in construction ranges from creamy brown in the bookshelf.. To the density a short budget and learning harvest, preparation and brewing techniques used professionals. Various species at 12 percent moisture for typical structural application rather than using it in condition! Great for woodworking because of its flexibility and its ability to bend all mechanical properties refer to density moisture... Using it in green condition & Gong, M. ( 2003 ) that its... Using it in green condition figures 3 and 4 show compression and stress. In species of tree in which its mass and volume were measured must always be known compression! Capacity and a moderately high tensile strength among wood-based materials floors, furniture, moldings and other wooden products on! Wood products is described in this fact sheet information, where possible, on the and... Wood than darker summer wood is relatively high at around 1,300 J kg... Small gap between rings does not necessarily mean that the wood modified softwoods and its to. Mechanical properties of various species at 12 percent moisture content original conditions the! Its density increases increases its resistance to decay and pests, brick or concrete a moderately high tensile.. Utilized in food products period time or other purposes moisture in which it is advisable sort...
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