[ROBINSON Dickens didn't stroll around the countryside..] Right.. ROBINSON So what you're saying then is that this mental image that drives even to this day so much of the environmental debate is simply, it may be true as far it goes, but you'd advise greater historical understanding. There've been many more dwelling units torn down in the name of public housing than have been built. Rothbard only influenced his own cult-like following, yet many of his anarcho-capitalists rather “ throw out ” Friedman’s libertarian legacy. It cannot possibly be overstated how important money is for a free society. We are in the midst of an open counterrevolution against liberty and limited government in the United States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. FRIEDMAN Absolutely. ROBINSON OK one half. Milton Friedman’s doctrine of shareholder primacy has been much maligned, mischaracterized, and misunderstood over the past several decades. But this week I found myself at a meeting of the Libertarian Alliance, having to defend him against charges of statism. The Food and Drug Administration said it had been inadequately tested in the United States and forbade it to be marketed in this country with the result that thousands of children were born with horrible birth defects in Europe to mothers who had used Thalidomide but that didn't happen to American children, because the FDA had intervened and kept that drug off the market. Huerta de Soto, Jesus. Overall, I would characterize him as a classical liberal, but not a libertarian, even utilizing a relatively inclusive defi­nition of that term. ROBINSON How do you create property rights in the air, say? Libertarianism: A Pri­mer. ROBINSON And so the key characteristic in which you find a circumstance where it's legitimate for the government to intervene would typically be where property rights are vague or diffuse, is that correct? He chose not to do so. For an alternative view of Hayek, see Block (1996, 1999), Block and Garschina (1996), Friedman vs. Block (2006), and Rothbard (1998, pp. Unfortunately, Friedman himself may be partially to blame for this because of his emphasis on profit-seeking rather than fulfilling the desires and goals of shareholders. But that would be just about it. 2007. Thursday, February 13, 2020. Last Friday, November 9, saw the big “Milton Friedman Centennial” celebration at the University of Chicago’s Becker Friedman Institute for Research in Economics. Block, Walter. What are the elements of the libertarian movement and how does one of its most illustrious proponents, Milton Friedman, apply its tenets to issues facing the United States today? 1967b. -In those countries where things that are run by the government not in those countries where private enterprises are. Oi, Walter Y. Writing in Liberty magazine (February 2007), Bruce Ramsey made the argument, “Milton Friedman was not just a figure in the libertarian movement. He founded the nonprofit Seasteading Institute, which … He stated (my paraphrase): “Thanks to the efforts of all economists for the last two centuries, tariffs are probably .01% lower than they otherwise would have been. 24The wearing of perfume is a positive exter­nality for some, and a negative externality for others, indicating the intellectual incoherence of the entire doctrine. No, he defends a far more intrusive government. Cite This Article. She might become the dictatress of the world; she would no longer be the ruler of her own spirit.”. If he entertains both goals, he falls into some sort of midway position, and then we rank him in terms of the strength with which he holds each. There are several reasons. Nothing could come closer to the very essence of libertarianism than that. To be fair to Friedman, virtually all mainstream economists believe in the legitimacy of antitrust law. Then, there is his negative income tax (Friedman, 1962, 1963). Friedman, David. [ROBINSON Even then it was a very good address.] Brian Doherty | 11.20.2012 10:30 AM Question number one, the environment. There are stories of the Indians describing that as a smoggy area. 1996. Department of Education? The Road To Serf­dom. And so the only case for government is when it is not feasible for market arrangements to make individuals pay, to compensate others for any harm they impose on them. There is a whole range of eco­nomic and personal liberties on the basis of which this Nobel Prize winning author can be considered well within the main­stream of libertarian thought. SHARE POST: In recent months, various critics of the late Milton Friedman have argued that Friedman dominated economic policy for a large part of the last half century. She is the well-wisher to the freedom and independence of all. The purpose of the law, legitimate law that is, is to distinguish between licit and illicit behavior, and to ban the latter. Block, Walter. Who are we to disagree? 22­25.]. Friedman, Milton. 2007. Yes, this offered significant improvements over pure communism, or at least the type of thuggery economics that long pre­vailed in the USSR. Still, he was an independent thinker, and I value that. ROBINSON Ok, terrific. Here, Friedman is supporting a policy of subsidizing poverty. 37Bread, rather than wheat products; colas, instead of all beverages. If there is any one area most closely associated with the subject of our discus­sion, other than monetarism, it is compe­tition in education, particularly primary schooling, K-12.33 Are educational vou­chers pro- or anti-liberty? Box 176, Abingdon, MD 20009-0176. I believe that giving the government control of this issue could lead to more abortions rather than fewer, because the … Gregory, Anthony and Walter Block. Milton Friedman calls himself a small “l” libertarian.1 Just because he does so, however, does not mean we have to con-cur with this self-styled description.2 1Small “l” as opposed to large “L.” This re-fers to the Libertarian Party. Milton Friedman's documentary series Free To Choose first aired on PBS 40 years ago. And the point is with respect to smog, the efficient way to do it is to use the market. 1967. Fourth, how does Friedman know that “we might all of us be willing to contri­bute to the relief of poverty provided eve­ryone else did”? FRIEDMAN But that was a case of too much government [ROBINSON It was? Friedman, Milton. ROBINSON In the absence of those government laws it wouldn't have taken place? Politically Impossible? My god, if you think of the way in which they've destroyed parts of cities under the rubric of eliminating slums. And those are the fundamental functions of government in my opinion. Written by Alex Horsman. 2005. And what we aim for is the least shade of grey that's possible. 21According to Stigler (1962, p. 2), what is needed to keep body and soul together for a year is very minimal: 370 pounds of wheat flour, 57 cans of evaporated milk, 111 pounds of cabbage, 25 pounds of spinach and 285 pounds of dried navy beans. ROBINSON Once again, on balance , get rid of the FDA. He is a leader for the libertarian party and has said he’s “ open ” to the idea of universal basic income. And so over time I have gradually come to the conclusion that antitrust laws do far more harm than good and that we would be better off if we didn’t have them at all, if we could get rid of them (Friedman, 1999). Then predatory pricing or cutthroat competition. Friedman allowed the libertarian Cato Institute to use his name for its biannual Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty beginning in 2001. FRIEDMAN Now let's keep going..and the government also prevents useful information from being passed on. Let me give you an example- Thalidomide [FRIEDMAN Everybody's favorite example...] Well I may be leading with my chin on this one but I'm going to lead with it anyway. ROBINSON A smoke stack on the back of every government program- by that you mean, a distortion in the marketplace.. FRIEDMAN Right, imposing a cost on third parties for which the third parties are not compensated. Surely people living abroad have just as much “right”25 to the wealth of Ameri­cans. Milton Friedman — ‘I am a libertarian with a small 'l' and a Republican with a capital 'R'. But this is irrelevant. Epstein, Richard A. Definitely not. Friedman, Milton and Rose Friedman. Milton Friedman calls himself a small “l” libertarian. In a universal-suffrage democracy, it is impossible. by David R. Henderson. 1Small “l” as opposed to large “L.” This re­fers to the Libertarian Party. Become engaged in a community that shares an interest in the mission of the Hoover Institution to advance policy ideas that promote economic opportunity and prosperity, while securing and safeguarding peace for America and all mankind. 17 . That's the prime view, that's the Ayn Rand type of libertarianism. Friedman, Milton. The concentration ratio is arbitrary, and so is the definition of an industry. Milton Friedman’s libertarian economics advocating shareholder capitalism has influenced generations trying to understand the economy, not only in the US, but all over the world. FRIEDMAN Basic fundamental functions, what are its fundamental functions? And we have, particularly in the L.A. basin, smog beginning in the 1970's that the environmental movement begins to... FRIEDMAN Oh no, the smog went back 200 years. For minarchists, the isolationist and non-interventionist policies of George Washington and John Quincy Adams are definitive.27 Trade with all countries, but “entangling alliances” with none.28 “Invasion” of goods and services, on a voluntary basis, yes.29 Imperialist, that is, actual invasions of other countries by our armed forces, the placing of U.S. military bases on foreign soil, no. 1999. Their careers almost entirely overlapped, yet one left a lasting influence on the free world, while the other died in more or less absurdity. FRIEDMAN But not only historical, present. Similar­ly, by exhaling, he increases the rate of carbon “poisoning” by an infinitesimal amount. Hutt, W. H. 1971. “Why Not a Volun­teer Army?” New Individualist Review, 4 (Spring): 3-9. The US Nobel economist Milton Friedman was one of the most effective critics of big government of his time – mainly, the second half of the twentieth century. ROBINSON Milton Friedman has told us why the government's role in our lives should be limited, but how limited? Hoppe, Hans-Hermann. ROBINSON During the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, government in Britain was very limited and economic enterprise went all but unregulated yet that wasn't exactly a golden age now was it? Milton Friedman in his PBS special ‘Free to choose‘ explains the detriment the so-called for-the-people-laws such as minimum wages brings. 1998. Ferrini, Luca. 2008. For if he favors the volunta­ry military for one reason, this adds to his standing in this regard, while for another this detracts from it. 1997. New York: Fordham University Press. The Econom­ics and Ethics of Private Property: Stu­dies in Political Economy and Philoso­phy. 1960. 23It is beyond rational explanation why the left has not seized upon and made its own the various Friedman nostrums such as the nega­tive income tax, school vouchers, etc. Lenin knew well that the surest way to undermine a society is to debauch its currency.17 A large part of the blame for the rise of Hitler in the 1930s was the German hyperinflation of the 1920s, which pretty much unraveled the entire economy. One of his famous quotes is, “The society that puts equality before freedom will end up with neither. The purpose of the judiciary is to distinguish innocence from guilt in criminal matters. Taylor, Jared, ed. All property other than that needed to perform these three functions (army barracks, planes, tanks and guns, police stations, jails, courthouses) would be privately owned. But this simply is not good enough. They ought to own the land on which government buildings are on. “Milton Fried­man Unraveled,” Journal of Libertarian Studies, 16 (Fall): 37-54. For the last thing a follower of this view­point wants is to improve socialist schooling. Rather the goal is to complete­ly privatize this industry. George H. Nash, a leading historian of American conservatism, says that by "the end of the 1960s he was probably the most highly regarded and influential conservative scholar in the country, and one of the few with an international reputation." 1962. ROBINSON What I mean by civil rights is to take a raw case, the South, under Jim Crow in the 1950's. Their careers almost entirely overlapped yet one left a lasting influence on the free world while the other died in more or less absurdity having only influenced it’s cult-like following yet many anarcho-capitalists rather “throw out” Friedman’s libertarian legacy. Saying Milton Friedman was defending free trade just to make money off of China’s market liberalizations decades … If his claim in this regard is given credence, then critics of more extreme versions of libertarianism will continue to be confronted with the “Even Milton says …” argument, implying that anyone with a purer vision of economic freedom and free enterprise is for that reason alone too extreme. FRIEDMAN Well that's a very complicated issue and it's not an easy answer with respect to that. Milton Friedman is the Godfather of American conservative libertarianism. ROBINSON So part of what's going on is it's natural. So much for negative externali­ties. 1992b. Just because he does so, however, does not mean we have to concur with this self-styled description. When I started in this business, as a believer in competi­tion, I was a great supporter of antitrust laws; I thought enforcing them was one of the few desirable things that the gov­ernment could do to promote more com­petition. Friedman, Milton and Simon Kuznets. Does registering more than 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 % of sales, profits, employment of an industry qualify for antitrust scrutiny? [ROBINSON Right, of course] Why is the government going to improve airline safety? It was the government that enforced separate areas for blacks and whites, it was the government that enforced the law that the blacks had to sit at the back of buses. ... I’m a libertarian, I totally understand why people are wary of lockdowns and mask mandates. ROBINSON Well then we shove it under defense, the little bit that handles the nuclear, plutonium and so forth goes under Defense but we abolish the rest of it. 1998. This site appears by authority of the Libertarian Party of Maryland, Eric Blitz, Treasurer. There is such a thing as a free enter­prise monetary system. Block, Walter. I believe we want to bring about change by the agreement for the citizens, I don't believe in...If we can't persuade the public that it's desirable to do these things, we have no right to impose them even if we have the power to do it. If through dint of lowering prices, increasing quali­ty, beating the competition in a race to satisfy the consumer by introducing new and better products, then whatever result ensues it is compatible with libertarian law. 1969. In the same way, if Central Park were not owned by the government, it never would've become the filthy place it became. Do you think the manufacturer of Thalidomide made a profit out of Thalidomide or lost? 35It is more than passing curious that in his treatment of socialized medicine (Friedman, 2001) this author eschews vouchers. Friedman is thus maintaining that while he does not vote for Second, categorization is a very im­portant aspect of political economic anal­ysis (Block and Cwik, 2007). ROBINSON Well you've just defined it, but thank you, I'll take the credit. But, here, Friedman is advocating compulsory taxes from the middle class and rich, in order to give the money to the poor. New York: Broadway Books. These are to keep foreigners from attacking us while located in the domestic country, not while traveling abroad. And it sounds to me as though you have both reasons pretty well wrapped up. I am distressed by the sight of poverty; I am benefited by its alleviation; but I am benefited equally whether I or someone else pays for its alleviation; the benefits of other people’s charity therefore partly accrue to me. THE CHICAGO SCHOOL Friedmanism can be fully understood only in the context of its historical roots, and these roots are the so-called “Chicago School” of economics of the 1920s and 1930s. The Libertarian vs. Liberal debate is confusing for some, but once you understand it, it’s clear as day. 1992a. The pre­sent paper discusses in some detail Friedman’s divergences from libertaria­nism in just a few cases. ROBINSON The FDA simply ensures that pharmaceutical companies live up to the old dictum, first do no harm. Consider this statement of Friedman’s (1967, p. 4): A volunteer army would be manned by people who had chosen a military career rather than, at least partly, by reluctant conscripts anxious only to serve out their term. 1987. FRIEDMAN When you do it now, by selling the right to emit a certain amount of pollutants into the air. Brimelow, Peter. We begin by asking Dr. Friedman just what is a libertarian. ROBINSON But who should take care of the resources that we all share, such as the air we breath? No, es­pecially for Rothbard, the only time force is justified is when it is used against someone who has first initiated a property rights violation against someone else. 11See Murray (1997), Boaz (1997), Epstein (1995), and Machan (1990). If Central Park were privately owned it would be advantageous to provide recreational spaces. It also includes the field of personal liber­ties. On the other hand if you disapprove it, but it turns out to be good, well then later on you approve it four or five years later, nobody's going to complain about the fact that you didn't approve it earlier except those greedy pharmaceutical companies that want make profits at the expense of the public, as everybody will say. Is it any accident that welfare programs such as the Friedmanian negative income tax tend to ex­acerbate this very problem? 1981. Except that energy ties in with military. 12The text makes it sound as if there are clear and fast lines between categories of political economy, and number and type of functions of government. Boaz, David. For a supposed libertarian to actually support such a legal monstros­ity is an outrage. “The Economic Cost of the Draft,” American Economic Review, 57 (May): 39-62. Remember what I said is- the key feature of a libertarian view is that you should be free to do what you want provided you don't prevent other people from doing the same thing. It is difficult to reconcile this with the libertarian philoso­phy. Of why is it that all these people from the farming, from the rural areas came to the city. ROBINSON Disraeli and his social...the child labor laws... FRIEDMAN No, no what cleaned it up was the progress of private enterprise because you had a...the reason it was so messy was because you had to burn coal and the kind of coal that was available in Britain was very smokey and messy. But why stop there? You remember Martin Anderson wrote a book on the federal bulldozer describing the effect of the urban development. Milton Friedman wasn’t the only libertarian supporting universal basic income. Where is it least rosy? A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960. 1997. Another prominent supporter is Charles Murray. While both of these political thought processes have some areas that overlap, you’ll soon understand the fundamental differences between the history, modernization, and … Friedman, Milton Rose Friedman. There are several reasons. society. 1978. The fundamental maxims of her policy would insensibly change from liberty to force. ROBINSON Alright, done. But in more recent years, until the very recent years, Central Park came to be a place where you wouldn't dare to do that, it wasn't safe. At the most extreme8 point on the li­bertarian spectrum is located anarcho-capitalism.9 Here, all functions of gov­ernment would be privatized, and turned over to free enterprise. For example, if he sells at a price deemed by the state apparatus to be too high, he is found guilty of profiteering or price gouging. Milton Friedman was born in 1912 and died in 2006. But both are equally jus­tified, at least from his Chicago-esque perspective where externalities justify the use of force.26 Let us then apply the for­mer. A department of defense is justified, but not a mis­named such department, which really serves as a department of offense. We must apply them, without fear or favor. 3Personal communication with the author. What do you do..how did that come to be? [ROBINSON Today.] But the libertarian does not welcome slight improvements in socialism; he favors instead an eradica­tion, root and branch, of this pernicious system. Dr. Friedman believes in limited government, very limited government. He states: “the search for justice will kill us all” (verbal statement from Milton Friedman to present author). There may have been, undoubtedly don't misunderstand me, there is prejudice, there's no question, and undoubtedly it has bad affects on various people but in the absence of the laws in the south it would've broken down much faster and much earlier. It cannot be denied that they would introduce a modicum of competi­tion to the public schools, which sorely need it. Every motorcyclist has a choice to make that is except in the more than 20 states, including this state of California, that require the use of the helmet by law. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. “A Libertarian Theory of Free Immigration,” Journal of Libertarian Studies, 13 (Summer): 187­97. This site rocks the Classic Responsive Skin for Thesis. Is he an anar­cho-capitalist? The idea’s execution was, well, not as great. Those packages that had the ingredients on it would be more attractive to consumers than those that didn't. 1975. Milton Friedman was an American economist and leading representative of the Chicago School during the last half of the 20th century. 1998. ROBINSON The typical definition of libertarianism in my mind is that a libertarian wants the smallest, least intrusive government consistent with... FRIEDMAN Consistent with the maximum freedom for each individual to follow his own ways, his own values, as long as he doesn't interfere with anybody else who's doing the same. Before discussing the points of diver­gence between Friedman and this politi­cal economic philosophy, let us take a detour and characterize the various topics of concern to libertarianism, the better to be able to compare and contrast his views with that system. Milton Friedman was perhaps the most brilliant and productive libertarian ever. Is he a libertarian? 1980. However, there is no income redistribution from the very to the moderately rich; there is only a safety net placed under the very, very poor, so that they do not die from starvation, from the elements, etc., in case private charity does not first meet this need. Admittedly, this is a tricky argument to level against Friedman’s credentials as a libertarian. In Friedman’s view, this crime is triggered solely on the basis of too high a concentration ratio in a given industry. ROBINSON So on the environment, the greens actually do have a point, that is one area where there is a strong case... FRIEDMAN But in most cases in practice, when you look at it, and there are some people up at PERC as you know who have Terry Anderson, who I'm sure has been on your program, who have demonstrated that there are many many cases in which market arrangements are far more effective than command and control arrangements. “The Drug War as a Socialist Enterprise,” in Arnold S. Trebach and Kevin B. Zeese, eds., Friedman & Szasz on Liberty and Drugs. Seeing that, they have every interest to be extremely rigorous in testing that drug before they make it available. 1989. “Is There a Right to Immigration? For, at present, the malevolent hand of government only lightly rests on the shoulder of the overall educational mar­ketplace. 27John Quincy Adams, speaking on the Fourth of July, 1821: “Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been un­furled, there will [America’s] heart, her be­nedictions, and her prayers be. Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist, statistician, and author who taught at the University of Chicago for more than three decades. FRIEDMAN Abolish. If political economists wish to have their efforts con­sidered systematic, we, too, must be more than merely acquainted with the niceties of categorization. There are many other problems with this line of thought as well. ROBINSON The Food and Drug Administration which regulates everything from the drugs that pharmaceutical companies may put on the market to the ingredients in items we purchase off the grocery store shelves. FRIEDMAN And where it's almost impossible to make them precise. Also it would permit intensive training and a higher av­erage level of skill for the men in service; and it would encourage the use of more and better equipment. A Friedman Prize was given to the late … That is, declare pover­ty to be a criminal offense. She is the champion and vindicator only of her own … She well knows that, by once enlisting under other banners than her own, were they even the banners of foreign independence, she would involve herself, beyond the power of extrication, in all the wars of interest and intrigue, of indi­vidual avarice, envy and ambition, which assume the color and usurp the standard of freedom. Vouchers, at least, would eliminate one of these, the latter. Friedman, Milton and Rose Friedman. Milton Friedman’s libertarian economics advocating shareholder capitalism has influenced generations trying to understand the economy, not only in the US, but all over the world. 4 (2002): 37–54. “Hayek’s Road to Serf­dom,” Journal of Libertarian Studies, 12 (Fall): 327-50 [reprinted in Ama-gi: Journal of the Hayek Society at the Lon­don School of Economics, vol. A Program for Monetary Stability. Brozen, Yale and Milton Friedman. If anything, the very opposite is the case. We might not be willing to con­tribute the same amount without such as­surance …. It happens to be there two kinds, there are private-for-profit enterprises and not-for-profit enterprises like the museum, like the opera house and so on. One argument in favor of vouchers is that at present the government is involved in two ways in elementary education: financing and provision. Consider this statement by Friedman (1962, p. 191): It can be argued that private charity is in­sufficient because the benefits from it ac­crue to people other than those who make the gifts—again, a neighborhood effect. But as I watched what actually happened, I saw that, instead of promot­ing competition, antitrust laws tended to do exactly the opposite, because they tended, like so many government activi­ties, to be taken over by the people they were supposed to regulate and control. This insti­tution is to protect us from local mi­screants: murderers, rapists, arsonists, kidnappers, pickpockets, fraudsters, etc. This hardly sounds like any kind of libertarianism at all, even under the widest possible inter­pretation of that term. First, just what is the “community?” Reading in between the lines, one would infer that Friedman has in mind the citi­zens or residents of a given city, state, or perhaps country. Milton Friedman — ‘I am a libertarian with a small 'l' and a Republican with a capital 'R'. But a similar analysis applies to the positive side. Editor’s note: This essay is an excerpt of the new Hoover Press book Milton Friedman on Freedom, edited by Robert Leeson and Charles G. Palm. [ROBINSON Pay it off?] “A Libertarian Case for Free Immigration,” Journal of Liberta­rian Studies, 13 (Summer): 167-186. See Ferrini (2005). ROBINSON Again and again you will hear that we've tried, the Western world has already tried laissez-faire, let her rip economics and it ended up with the London that Charles Dickens portrayed "dirty, filthy, child-labor" just a terrible mess. In 1971, Friedman received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. At the outset, Friedman’s assertion that he should be considered a small “l” libertarian looks like an eminently rea­sonable one. He was not just an academic economist, but an enormously influential celebrity conservative ideologue who legitimized ideas for the like-minded, including the belief that ‘greed is good’. It was an unapologetic defense of why capitalism was both morally and pragmatically superior to socialism. FRIEDMAN Absolutely, if it didn't work...the main thing is, if it didn't work, it would be an impossible goal. The name “Milton Fried­man” has been connected over the years with a whole host of free enterprise initia­tives,4 and this is certainly a large part of libertarianism.5 For example, he opposes rent control (Friedman and Stigler, 1981), minimum wages (Friedman, 1962, 1980, 1983; Brozen and Friedman, 1966), so­cialized medicine (Friedman, 2001), ta­riffs (Friedman, 1962, 1975, 1977, 1997),6 and wants to reduce the size of government (Friedman, 1987). But that is the nub of the problem, at least from the libertarian perspective. Milton Friedman calls himself a small “l” libertarian. And they're not being allowed to do it. I don't believe in dictators. That he favors “rules not authorities” cuts little ice in this regard. Kinsella, Stephan. 2001. So that if customers really wanted to know about the ingredient, it would be in the self-interest of the people producing it to put it on their packages. Boudreaux, Donald J. Milton Friedman was born in 1912 and died in 2006. Milton Friedman calls himself a small “l” libertarian.1 Just because he does so, however, does not mean we have to con­cur with this self-styled description.2As with all empirical matters, we must check the evidence if we are to properly eva­luate such a claim. Suppose one accepts, as I do, this line of reasoning as justifying go­vernmental action to alleviate poverty; to set, as it were, a floor under the standard of life of every person in the community …. Friedman wrote Capitalism and Freedom in 1962, 10 years before Nixon’s visit to China, and The Economist was founded to repeal the Corn Laws in 1843. By David Henderson. Friedman allowed the libertarian Cato Instituteto use his name for its biannual Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty beginning in 2001. [ROBINSON Russia? This site appears by authority of the Libertarian Party of Maryland, Eric Blitz, Treasurer. The idea’s execution was, well, not as great. However, here we are not attempting to determine guilty or innocence for a crime. Stanford: Hoover Institution. community of supporters in Attacks on countries that have never threatened us, and are so powerless they could not possibly pose a credible threat against us? Would we regard this as a step toward greater liberty? Our show today, libertarianism. But I thought the South in those days had relatively had low tax rates, relatively low regulation...] No, no, but the government provided for a separation. So the government imposes quite modest rules for posting the nutritional values on packages in the grocery store. For there is simply no initiation of violence necessarily connected with amassing even 100 % of an industry, however defined. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. Further, no true libertarian, at least on this issue, would raise the issue of whether Microsoft is or is not guilty of a rights violation, and then fail to answer, strongly, in the negative36 His advocacy of freedom in this regard is far too super­ficial to be called libertarian. Histori­cally, whenever the situation was free enough for this decision to be made by market actors, gold was the overwhelm­ing choice.19 This metal beat out other commodities because it was malleable, easily divisible with low cost, had a high value per weight and volume and thus was easily transportable, etc. Friedman, Milton and Anna J. Schwartz. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. “The Case for Free Trade and Restricted Immigration,” Journal of Libertarian Studies, 13 (Sum­mer): 221-33. 2001. I don’t want government telling private businesses telling what they can and can’t do. Block, Walter. On some issues, this is absolutely correct. However, I doubt whether Rothbard would have allowed so serious a deviation from free enterprise principles as this, even if it were the only one: In a television interview (video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6813529239937418232, beginning around 15:23) Fried­man endorses the New Deal WPA and PWA as necessary emergency action. But look around the world today. Here, he again fails. For one thing, Friedman admits that for most of his intellectual life he favored antitrust laws. Milton Friedman, an 'Elfin Libertarian' Giant. Not too well. 1944. ROBINSON After the passenger themselves, the airlines. You may lose, I may lose , or more likely we're both going to win. But even if there were a correct non-arbitrary definition of monopoly in terms of concentration ratios, it still does not logically follow that, at least for the liber­tarian, this ought to be found in violation of law. However, this only indi­cates the parlous nature of the economics profession. Your gift helps advance ideas that promote a free society. What It Means to be a Libertarian. And yet they don’t typically mean that in a complimentary way. “Continuums,” Journal Etica e Politica / Ethics & Politics, 1 (June): 151-66. Milton Friedman was not just one of the world’s most distinguished economists — he may have also been America’s most famous and influential libertarian. But not those engaged in victimless “crimes” such as drug using or dealing, sexual acts between consenting adults, gambling, etc. The point is, one can attain any market share by employing purely legitimate means; therefore, it is impossible to infer rights violation from such a source. Journal of Libertarian Studies 16, No. Washington, George. Murray, Charles. The Libertarian Party's 2004 presidential candidate Michael Badnarik had a similar position, writing: "I oppose government control over the abortion issue. Friedman gave a … Boston: Kluwer Academic. Milton Friedman calls himself a small “l” libertarian.1 Just because he does so, however, does not mean we have to con-cur with this self-styled description.2 1Small “l” as opposed to large “L.” This re-fers to the Libertarian Party. As a libertarian, Dr. Friedman believes in the maximum possible freedom for the individual. And it's the one you've just defined. OK Milton Friedman, if you are made dictator for one day, the next day.. FRIEDMAN No, no I don't want to be made dictator. This is a complicated incident to analyze, for Friedman promulgated this initiative for two entirely different rea­sons, one completely compatible with libertarianism, the other certainly not. 18This is the title of one of Friedman’s books (1980). The only reason there's any chance of keeping government limited is because government is so inefficient and does so poorly. He states: Now we come to Silicon Valley and Mi­crosoft. The least radical category of liberta­rianism might be characterized as minar­chism plus, or moderately limited government.11 In this case the state would take on, in addition to the three institu­tions mentioned above, control of what is characterized by some (public choice) as “pure public goods.” For example, mos­quito control, swamp draining, prevention of communicable diseases, ownership of transportation arteries (roads and high­ways, but not railroads), bodies of water (rivers, lakes, sewers), fire protection (since fires spread), but not the post of­fice (the U.S. constitution authorizes, but does not require, that such amenities be under government control). Capitalism and Freedom. And yet this outrage garners Friedman’s support.20 This is not even minarchism plus. That was because it was a government park. He could have set up an en­tirely different organization, along liber­tarian lines, dedicated, far more simply, to the promotion of privatization in edu­cation. New York: Macmillan. Morris Fiorina is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and the Wendt Family Professor of Political Science at Stanford University. Anderson, William, Walter Block, Thomas J. DiLorenzo, Ilana Mercer, Leon Snyman and Christopher Westley. And third are courts. He claims that this, too, is an instance of “market fail­ure,” and can be corrected only by gov­ernment. For more on this see Rothbard (1982). But she goes not abroad in search of monsters to destroy. Thank god for the FDA, right? The Libertarian Party's 2004 presidential candidate Michael Badnarik had a similar position, writing: "I oppose government control over the abortion issue. Friedman is thus maintaining that while he … I am not going to argue about the technical aspects of whether Microsoft is guilty or not under the antitrust laws. We for years, for some years, a long long time ago, lived on Central Park West when we were in New York. So thoughts and mo­tives are entirely relevant. Civil rights. Such libertarians are a minority. 4Even the unrelievedly partisan left wing television series West Wing has acknowl­edged no less (http://www.westwingepguide.com/S5/Episodes/96_DR.html). Machan, Tibor. Our address is P.O. For him, the free enterprise system is simply incapable of providing this lifeblood of the economy, e.g., the gold standard. The pleasures of roaring along the open road while the wind streams through your hair, well it would stream your hair if you didn't have a helmet on. FRIEDMAN Well it's not even clear that the passengers have more interest than the airlines because included in the passengers are the pilots. When he gets on his bike every motorcyclist has a choice to make, wear the helmet and achieve greater safety, take the helmet off and have more fun. If he fa­vors the ending of the draft despite the fact that he thinks it will promote this foreign adventurism, his motives are completely compatible with libertarian­ism. It should've been possible...[ROBINSON So tort law takes care of a lot of this.] And there's enormous evidence that they have caused more deaths by late approvals than they have saved by early approval. This is not a safety net protecting the very poorest from a death or near death experience.21 Instead, at any level likely to be publicly acceptable (and Friedman is nothing if not a person with his ear to the ground in terms of the politically feasible22) those without any other visible means of sup­port will still have color television sets, air conditioning, refrigerators, stoves, restaurant meals, a car, travel, and all the other accoutrements to which a life of “poverty” has entitled them, under our benevolent welfare state. He was a leader of the second generation of libertarian economists to come out of the University of Chicago. Washington, DC: The Free Society Association. 1999. But virtually every human ac­tion has some sort of “effect” on someone else. www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/press_site/people/pdf/friedman_intv.pdf#search-milton%20friedman%20libertarian; Block, Walter and Gene Callahan. If the next few econometric regressions indicate that this evil and pernicious law on net balance does more good than harm, he would be open to once again changing his mind. www.reason.com/9506/FRIEDMAN.jun.shtml; Block, Walter. This is the first comprehensive anthology of libertarian thought—from the Bible and Lao-Tzu to Hayek and Milton Friedman—to be published in one volume. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. In the former case, he worked to end the draft to promote justice30 by reducing the draft-slavery of young male Ameri­cans. Let us now consider the U.S. invasion of Viet Nam, and Friedman’s contribu­tion to that event. 1796. We infer from this decision that he is not a liberta­rian, at least not on this one issue, which is obviously of great importance to him. Hailed as the godfather of conservative libertarianism, Milton Friedman quotes openly attacked Keynesianism in an era when most economists widely accepted its fundamental premises. Here he is an out and out leftist. Unfortunately, Friedman himself may be partially to blame for this because of his emphasis on profit-seeking rather than fulfilling the desires and goals of shareholders. FRIEDMAN You can regard the Veteran Affairs as a way of paying essentially salaries for services of those who've been in the armed forces but you ought to be able to get rid of it. Now isn't that a modest and completely acceptable government intervention? That's gone. Rothbard, Murray N. 1998 [1982]. By what right does the majority of the electorate force this minority to do the bidding of Friedman, just because he is in the major­ity on this particular issue? Vancou­ver: Fraser Institute. By David Henderson. How soon after will come down the pronunciamento that female and male teachers must be paid equally, that “affirmative action” quotas must be upheld for different racial groups, that “inclusive” language must be utilized, that Lincoln and FDR must not be denigrated, etc? Let's ask him about the structure about the federal government itself. was an intellectual leader of the Chicago School, and swayed the economic policies of Reagan, Thatcher, and Pinochet. There is a direct line from Milton Friedman to Donald Trump. Because everything in Russia was controlled by the government. We would rather interpret this as an attempt of the authorities to even further extend their control. “Law, Property Rights, and Air Pollution,” Cato Journal, (Spring): 55-99 [reprinted in Economics and the Environment: A Reconciliation, Walter Block, ed. In actual point of fact, the demarcation between anarcho-capitalism and minarchism and between minarchism and looser libertarianism or minarchism plus is reasonably sharp. But now, it's always a mystery to me why people think that some experts in a Washington office who don't know you, don't know me, don't know our children, know better than you and I do what we want to have on our packages and what we want our children to know. sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/06/05/ING9QD1E5Q1.DTL. Just because he does so, however, does not mean we have to concur with this self-styled description. However, there are important differences between the views embraced by the two men. Friedman, Milton. On Galbraith and on Curing the British Disease. FRIEDMAN Let me give you a different example. Video. But libertarianism encompasses far more than only free market economics. 2006. 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