Several of his ideas show the influence of Buddhism and its Four Noble Truths. Schopenhauer’s pessimistic vision follows from his account of the inner nature of the world as aimless blind striving.Because the will has no goal or purpose, the will’s satisfaction is impossible. Before being a field of study, it is above all a way of seeing the world, of questioning it. However, he had generally liberal views on many other social issues, and was strongly against taboos on issues like suicide and homosexuality. By his own admission, he did not give much thought to politics, but in general he was in favor of limited government, which would leave men free to work out their own salvation. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 - 1860) was a German philosopher, and an important figure in the German Idealism and Romanticism movements in the early 19th Century. Cite this article as: Tim, "Schopenhauer’s Philosophy Summary, April 22, 2012, " in. Schopenhauer's Ethics were mainly expressed his "Über die Freiheit des menschlichen Willens" ("On the Freedom of the Will") of 1839 and "Über die Grundlage der Moral" ("On the Basis of Morality") of 1840. And we swing like a pendulum between boredom and suffering. Schopenhauer believed the role of philosophy to be to “lay bare the true nature of the world” (The World as Will and Representation), so as to shed a ray of light on the darkness of this miserable existence, and in doing so provide consolation for the fragile and finite human animal. He was the first major philosopher to be openly atheist, and was unusual in placing the arts and Aesthetics so highly. In 1831, a cholera epidemic broke out in Berlin and Schopenhauer left the city. Summary. The first, corresponding to ‘Will’, is in consciousness of our mental states and intentions. Schopenhauer’s most influential work, The World As Will and Representation, examines the role of humanity’s main motivation, which Schopenhauer called will. The-Philosophy helps high-school & university students but also curious people on human sciences to quench their thirst for knowledge. Arthur Schopenhauer (/ ˈ ʃ oʊ p ən h aʊ. – Indeed, the philosophy of India here we can make a real light. Schopenhauer called himself a Kantian, and his starting point was certainly Kant's division of the universe into the phenomenal (things as they appear, and which can be perceived using our senses) and the noumenal (the "thing-in-itself", which is independent of us and which can only be thought or imagined by humans). In some ways, he can be considered the absolute antithesis of the whole German Idealist movement: he hated great systems, preferring to pursue single thoughts, and he opposed their religious stance and their German Nationalism. Know first of all that there is no single answer to this question. The Critique of the Schopenhauerian philosophy is generally seen as offering a position closer to realism than the idealism of Kant and Schopenhauer. Hegel returned prematurely to Berlin, caught the infection, and died, but Schopenhauer settled permanently in Frankfurt in 1833. Schopenhauer settled permanently in Frankfurt in 1833, where he remained for the next twenty-seven years, living alone except for a succession of pet poodles named Atman and Butz. * We have published more than 500 articles, all seeking directly or indirectly to answer this question. google_ad_height = 15; Little interested in a life of business and commerce, Schopenhauer used his private means to finance his studies. The use of the label "Will" is perhaps not important: he could equally have used "Force" or "Energy" (in fact, he did describe the physical universe as being made up of underlying energy, of which objects and matter are just instances, an idea strikingly similar to the 20th Century post-Einstein conception of matter). A year later, Schopenhauer and his sister joined her there. The author defends these views and shows in some detail how they mirror the Mahayana account of … … - 2008-2019,, Montesquieu’s Philosophy : The Spirit of the laws. Schopenhauer took an extra step beyond Kant, though, by suggesting that, because multiplicity was part of the phenomenal experience, noumenal reality must be singular, a single, undifferentiated, indistinguishable thing. It is common in the philosophy world that for us to know our very being, essence, and meaning we have to look inside our very own self and in successfully doing that, we also figure out the essence or meaning of the universe for we are as one with it. ... Schopenhauer was … So boredom prevails. – The term “metaphysical animal ” has remained famous. He was very concerned about the rights of animal, which he saw as phenomenal manifestations of Will, just as were humans. He lived for a time in Mannheim and Dresden, and visited Italy briefly on a couple of occasions, but eventually gravitated back to Berlin. Arthur Schopenhauer, a German philosopher, is essentially the author of the following works: This aspiring to be the only absolute is doomed, like all reality, unfortunately. Philosophy Talk: Schopenhauer Listen to this excellent radio program and take notes. Schopenhauer’s philosophy has been widely influential, partlybecause his outlook acknowledges traditional moral values without theneed to postulate the existence of God. Persuasive and humane, this classic of philosophy offers Schopenhauer's fullest examination of ethical themes, articulating a descriptive form of ethics that contradicts the rationally based prescriptive theories. His thought was partially influenced by Hinduism at an early stage, and he later found Buddhism sympathetic. Schopenhauer shows us the tragic play of life. Schopenhauer’s philosophy has at times been considered by critics to be an elaborate metaphysical justification for a profoundly pessimistic and gloomy temperament brought about by several factors. Like that popular piece of musical Weltshmerz, it has its limitations. After the failure of this plan (and an equally unsuccessful attempt a year or so later), he dropped out of academia and never taught at a university again. In 1831, at the age of 43, he again took interest in a younger woman, the 17-year old Flora Weiss, who roundly rejected him. From 1814 until 1818, he worked on his seminal work "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung" ("The World as Will and Representation") and published it the following year (1819). Aesthetic … From 1811 to 1812, he attended lectures at the University of Berlin given by the prominent post-Kantian Johann Gottlieb Fichte and the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768 - 1834), although he reacted both against what he saw as Fichte's extreme Idealism, and against Schleiermacher's assertion that the purpose of philosophy is to gain knowledge of God. Wagner may have been attracted to Schopenhauer because of the prominence Schopenhauer gave to music in his philosophy: while all other art forms are merely representative of phenomena, Schopenhauer suggested that music … – At the bottom of all there is, in effect, will (a will to live) that blind thrust and irresistible, unquenchable desire to live, only leads to suffering. summary Schopenhauer is widely recognized as the Western philosopher who has shown the greatest openness to Indian thought and whose own ideas approach most closely to it. This book examines his encounter with important schools of Hindu and Buddhist philosophy and subjects the principal apparent affinities to a careful analysis. Powered by WordPress. The columns of the site are open to external contributions. Schopenhauer then expanded on what this Will actually was, deriving his arguments from the main traditions of Western Philosophy, but arriving at a kind of Voluntarism almost entirely consistent with the Hindu Vedanta traditions in the Upanishads, which he knew well. Schopenhauer was part of the school known as German idealism, following Kant and Hegel. Schopenhauer (pronounced SHO-pun-how-er) was born on 22 February 1788 in Danzig (modern day Gdansk, Poland). If you are interested in the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer but you are not that keen on spending many a tiresome hour reading The World as Will and Representation, then The Wisdom of Life is as a good alternative as any. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 1860) was a German philosopher known for his atheism and pessimismin fact he is the most prominent pessimist in the entire western philosophical tradition. His view also allows for thepossibility of absolute knowledge by means of mystical experience.Schopenhauer also implicitly challenges the hegemony of science andother literalistic modes of expression, substituting in their place,more musical and literary styles of understanding. google_ad_slot = "6885402617"; His most renowned work was the book, ‘The World as a Will and Representation’ whose main theme is the dissatisfaction that people have in life hence will live to achieve the level of satisfaction that we desire (Hamlyn, 1980). He devised an ill-fated plan to schedule his own lectures to coincide with Hegel's in an unsuccessful attempt to attract student support away from Hegel. It locates Schopenhauer in relation to Kant, of whom he was both a follower and a critic. Independent from any institution or philosophical thought, the site is maintained by a team of former students in human sciences, now professors or journalists. His mother, however, moved to Weimar, then the center of German literature, to pursue her writing career, becoming a friend and favorite of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832). He held that the body is merely an extension of the Will, while art is a spontaneous act or pre-determined idea which the artist has in mind before any attempts at creation, and therefore cannot be linked to either the body or the intellect. Therefore, it is not death that we must look (although it refers to the time of the liberation of individuality bounded and narrow), but the annihilation of the supreme will, in reaching Nirvana, the end of suffering. Schopenhauers most influential work, The World As Will and Representation, examines the role of humanitys main motivation, which Schopenhauer called will. Contrary to Leibniz's view that this is the best of all possible worlds, Schopenhauer sought to prove that this is in fact the worst of all possible worlds and indeed that, if it were only a little worse, it would be no longer capable of continuing to exist. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 - 1860) was a German philosopher, and an important figure in the German Idealism and Romanticism movements in the early 19th Century. In 1805, when he was 17, his father died (possibly a suicide), and Schopenhauer took over the family business in Hamburg for a time, making him a rich man overnight. Schopenhauer acknowledges that his philosophy may appear cheerless and pessimistic, but he believes it is better to speak the simple truth, even though many people may not wish to hear it, rather than to tell rosy lies that some people may find more palatable. //-->. The 25-year-old Schopenhauer's doctoral dissertation, "Über die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde" ("On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason") already contained many of the arguments he would continue to use against the prevailing German Idealist philosophers of the time (Fichte, Schelling and Hegel). ... Book summary views reflect the … Schopenhauer had a robust constitution, but in 1860 his health began to deteriorate. His vision of Aesthetics and his doctrine of Voluntarism (as well as his aphoristic writing style) influenced many later philosophers as well as the Romantics of his own time. Schopenhauer traveled widely with his father as a youth, living for periods in both France and England. Unlike science, then, art effectively goes beyond the realm of sufficient reason. Like Kant, he held that the phenomenonof beauty would only be illuminated through a careful scrutiny of itseffects on the subject, rather than by proceeding in the pre-K… google_ad_width = 728; Suicide does not seem like a solution: it means a more passionate affirmation of the will to live than its negation. He had a distinctly hierarchical conception of the races, attributing civilizational primacy to the northern white races due to what he saw as their sensitivity and creativity. The Philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer From the Radical Academy . His analysis led him to the conclusion that emotional, physical, and sexual desires cause suffering and can never be fulfilled; consequently, he favored a lifest… In contrast to wide-ranging optimism of most his Romantic contemporaries in 19th Century Germany, he felt that all existence was ultimately futile since it can be fundamentally characterized by a want of satisfaction that can never be attained. Purchasing from these links helps to keep the website running, and I am grateful for your support! Schopenhauer's idea of genius was an artist so fixed on his art that he neglected the "business of life" (which, for Schopenhauer, meant only the domination of the evil and painful Will). His recognition— at least with respect to a pers… If the will to live means a restless power, plunging us into an eternal pain, we must detach ourselves from the blind power of universal life. Although his philosophy is atheist, Schopenhauer looks to several of the world religions for examples of asceticism and self-renunciation. Arthur Schopenhauer. When Danzig was annexed by Prussia in 1793, the family moved to Hamburg. As he aged, though, his pessimism and bleak outlook on life grew almost comically excessive: at one point, he advised people to swallow a toad every morning so that they would not meet with anything more disgusting in the day ahead. Although sharing many of Kant’s ideas, Schopenhauer rejects the notion of an unknowable world, the ‘thing in itself’, which is responsible for informing all our sensory experience, and which our experienced representationof the world is about. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 – 1860) was a German philosopher known for his atheism and pessimism—in fact, he is the most prominent pessimist in the entire western philosophical tradition. He believed that the "will-to-life" (the force driving man to survive and to reproduce) was the driving force of the world, and that the pursuit of happiness, love and intellectual satisfaction was essentially futile and anyway secondary to the innate imperative of procreation. Article Summary. Despite Caroline's urging, though, he never planned to marry, claiming that "marrying means to halve one's rights and double one's duties". II to the Payne transl.). ... Arthur Schopenhauer 1788-1860 He concluded that discursive thought (such as philosophy and Logic) could neither touch nor transcend the nature of desire or Will, and he certainly considered philosophy and Logic as less important than art, loving kindness and certain forms of religious discipline. The focus of this chapter is Schopenhauer’s On The Basis of Morality (1841). Schopenhauer, one of the great prose-writers among German philosophers, worked outside the mainstream of academic philosophy. Mainländer aims to free the philosophy of Schopenhauer from its metaphysical tendencies. His ethics—unlike Kant's, which are based on reason—are based on compassion. It was only in his late years that Schopenhauer finally enjoyed a contentment of sorts, through his relationship with the attractive sculptress and admirer of his philosophy, Elisabet Ney (1833 - 1907). Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, often called the “philosopher of pessimism,” who was primarily important as the exponent of a metaphysical doctrine of the will in immediate reaction against Hegelian idealism. One of the six essays from the first part of his 1851 book, Parerga and Paralipomena, The Wisdom of Life was originally intended to … His father was Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, a successful merchant; his mother was the talented author Johanna Trosiener; both were descendants of wealthy German families. How to get rid of this tragic game? – But man is not only a metaphysical animal: it is a religious being, which focuses on mysteries, understood as dogmas which can not be clearly captured by thought. In 1820, Schopenhauer became a lecturer at the University of Berlin and began his lengthy opposition to fellow lecturer G. W. F. Hegel, whom he accused of (among other things) using deliberately impressive, but ultimately meaningless, language. If we examine the reality of the body and its actions, we discover nothing beyond the fact that it is an idea, except the will. Schopenhauer himself, although on the short side, was tolerably good looking and attractive to women, but was never comfortable in romantic endeavors. He was genuinely interested and knowledgeable about Hinduism and Buddhism, and the only major Western philosopher to draw serious parallels between Western and Eastern Philosophy. ... Nietzsche suggests, would not have been possible without Schopenhauer's philosophy. This will is an aimless striving which can … tall people are attracted to short people, so that their offspring are more likely to be well-proportioned; those will large chins are attracted those with small chins, for the same reason; etc). Abstract There are unusual reasons why Schopenhauer's philosophy is important. These any technical student of philosophy is free to point out, as is also any classical critic of the romantic temperament. google_ad_client = "pub-2379188881946579"; Art can bring us a temporary issue and a consolation. He continued to write and publish, including "Über den Willen in der Natur" ("On the Will in Nature") in 1836, "Über die Freiheit des menschlichen Willens" ("On the Freedom of the Will") in 1839, "Über die Grundlage der Moral" ("On the Basis of Morality") in 1840, and a set of philosophical reflections called "Parerga und Paralipomena" in 1851. T… Perhaps more than any other major philosopher, Schopenhauer has been subject to trends and fashions in popularity, sinking from celebrity and renown to almost complete obscurity, before rebounding again in recent years (not least because of his perceived influence on the young Wittgenstein and Nietzsche). He also subscribed to the Contractarianism of Thomas Hobbes, and deemed the state (and state violence) necessary to check the destructive tendencies innate to our species. Julien Josset, founder. Having said that, he was also adamantly against differing treatment of races, and was fervently anti-slavery. Arthur Schopenhauer is regarded as one of the best German philosophers of all time. Unlock This Study Guide Now. – Is Desire dissatisfied ? ... Use the links to explore the ideas of this summary. An authoritative article by Robert Wicks from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Note: page referencesto vol. As beings in the Universe, we can conceive of ourselves in two ways. Schopenhauer’s philosophy is the Pathetique Symphony of nineteenth-century thought. Often considered a gloomy and thoroughgoing pessimist , Schopenhauer was actually concerned with advocating ways (via artistic, moral and ascetic forms of awareness) to overcome a frustration-filled and fundamentally painful … The founding principle of philosophy is perhaps the astonishment, source of the questions. In 1860, his health (which had always been robust) began to deteriorate, and he died peacefully of heart failure on 21 September 1860, aged 72. Whenever possible, I linked to books with my amazon affiliate code, and as an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. His writings influenced later existential philosophy and Freudian psychology. His most important work is usually considered to be "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung" ("The World as Will and Representation") of 1819, in which he expounded his doctrine of Pessimism (the evaluation and perception of life in a generally negative light). His distinctive views are that compassion marks one’s being as spontaneously motivated to relieve another’s suffering as one’s own and that this requires a metaphysical explanation for how one identifies with another. He entered the University of Göttingen in 1809 to study Metaphysics and Psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze (1761 - 1833), who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant. One of his main themes was that the world was idea, that is, it is a mental phenomenon that everyone shares. He saw even falling in love as just an unconscious element of this drive to reproduce, and enumerated some rather suspect (to modern tastes) laws of attraction (e.g. After the outbreak of a cholera epidemic in Berlin in 1831, both Schopenhauer and Hegel moved away. Schopenhauer was very much an atypical philosopher. Schopenhauer’s pessimism is the most well known feature of his philosophy, and he is often referred to as the philosopher of pessimism. Summary and Analysis of Schopenhauer’s Work: The World as Will and as Representation The World as Will and Representation, published in 1819, by Arthur Schopenhauer (a german philosopher) is an immense work, a cathedral whose ambition is to synthesize the conceptions of ontology, metaphysics, morality or aesthetics. In The World As Will & Representation (Idea) (1819), Arthur Schopenhauer presents a two-sided metaphysics. Philosophical Writings: Arthur Schopenhauer (German Library)Paperback – July 1, 1994, Prize Essay on the Freedom of the Will Paperback – 1980, The Philosophy of Schopenhauer Revised Edition, The Cambridge Companion to Schopenhauer (Cambridge Companions to Philosophy), Schopenhauer: A Very Short Introduction 1st Edition, Schopenhauer (The Great Philosophers Series) 1st Edition, Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy First Printing Edition, Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy. Man defines as a metaphysical animal, able to marvel at his own existence and the sight of the world, aspiring to be absolute. Retaining from Kant the distinction between the noumenal and the phenomenal, he embraces the relevance of Eastern philosophy to the former and that of empiricism to the latter. For Schopenhauer, our consciousness is in the service of our will. He saw love (as in the Ancient Greek concept of "agape", rather than erotic love) as an immensely powerful force lying unseen within man's psyche and dramatically shaping the world. He held that this wild and powerful drive to survive and reproduce is essentially what causes suffering and pain in the world, and that the only way to escape the suffering inherent in a world of Will was through art. He is also considered among the supreme writers of German prose, and his elegant and aphoristic writing style has even led to the publication of standalone books of aphorisms and witticisms. It is somewhat possible to associate Arthur Schopenhauer's philosophy with the approaches to matters philosophical, not only of some of the most celebrated figures in the western traditions of philosophy, but also with prominent authorities from other faith and philosphical traditions across the globe:- He remained there for the next twenty-seven years until his death, living alone except for a succession of pet poodles, observing a strict daily routine and taking an active interest in animal welfare. – The happiness means nothing positive, but only the momentary cessation of pain or deprivation: far from appearing as concrete fullness, it represents a simple negative. He finally received some long-awaited recognition for his early works later in the 1850s, and his last book of somber essays and aphorisms became an unlikely best seller. – This is defined Nirvana as extinction of the human desire to live: the life we ​​know, the one who gives up the will to live without leaving the sentence, and thus reaches Nirvana. The dynamics of the empirical will and Will as a thing-in-itself in the interplay of Schopenhauer's metaphysics and philosophy of fine art has important implications for the freedom, salvation and tragic suffering of the artist, the representation of Platonic Ideas in art, and the role of artistic inspiration, emotion and aesthetic pleasure in the beautiful and sublime. ər /; German: [ˈaʁtʊʁ ˈʃoːpn̩haʊ̯ɐ] (); 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation (expanded in 1844), which characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will. Hence arises the need for philosophy. Studies in Pessimism (1913) by Arthur Schopenhauer, ... On the Sufferings of the World is a rendering and translation of the philosopher's remarks under the heading of Nachträge zur Lehre vom Leiden der Welt, together with certain parts of another section entitled Nachträge zur Lehre von der Bejahung und Verneinung des Willens zum Leben, originally published in Parerga und Paralipomena. Building on the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, … – It transmutes, indeed, the pain in a performance shown, which removes, by its beauty, the sorrows of life and we reimburse actual pain: the pure contemplation of the things we pulled up, temporarily, into a nightmare existence. In dramatic and powerful prose, he described the world as a truly terrible place, full of injustice, disease, repression, suffering and cruelty. He looks grim and, for many, his philosophy is depressing. The double knowledge which each of us possesses of his own body is the key to the nature of every phenomenon in the world. Schopenhauer thought we could know the nature of reality, the will, because we are part of it. Schopenhauer (1778-1860) was one of the few modern philosophers who made a serious study of Upanishads and Buddhist philosophy, not merely to satisfy an intellectual quest but also to derive from them some of the basic elements of his own philosophy as also the grounds for the aim and method of the practice in life. It is rooted in surprise and suggests that is absolute behind nature. The human Suffering dominates. He believed that the "will-to-life" (the force driving man to remain alive and to reproduce) was the inner content and the driving force of the world, and that Will and desire were ontologically prior to thought and the intellect (and even to being). Pessimistic thinker, Arthur Schopenhauer has shattered the illusions performed on human and had a considerable influence on the history of philosophy (Nietzsche), on the art (Wagner) or literature (Maupassant) . – As for the term metaphysical taken substantively, it means, Schopenhauer, a discipline which claims to be knowledge and experience beyond the given phenomena (as defined by Kant), claiming a speculative rise above lessons of experience. Etymologically, philosophy means love of wisdom. His thought… I refer to the Cambridge edition translation; references tovol. This belief of Schopenhauer's -- that people would rather hear the truth than pretty falsehoods -- reminds me of a dream I once had back in … – The trend reaches it, however, satisfaction? In partial defense of love, though, he reasoned that only a force as strong as love could force us into this role, and that we actually have no choice but to fall in love, as biology is stronger than reason. He concluded that the noumenon was the same as that in us which we call Will (or at least that Will was the most immediate manifestation of the "thing-in-itself" that we can experience). Centres on Schopenhauer's conception of the self and how it relates to the world, primarily dealing with his book The World as Will and Representation. Since 2008, acts for the diffusion of the philosophical thoughts. He died of heart failure on 21 September 1860 while sitting at home on his couch. Begins with an overview of Schopenhauer’s philosophy and its relationship to his aesthetic theory.Develops closer analysis of Schopenhauer’s theory of art, placing emphasis on the relationship between aesthetic experience and relief from suffering.Continues with analysis of the convergence between Schopenhauerian and Buddhist philosophy and aesthetics. He submitted his doctoral dissertation, "Über die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde" ("On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason"), to the University of Jena and was awarded a Ph.D. in absentia in 1813. Hence arises the metaphysical? While accepting Kant's transcendental idealism and the associated notion of the ‘I’ as a pure subject of knowledge distinct from the world of objects, Schopenhauer … To summarize, Schopenhauer wanted to cut the problem at its root: the desire is a constantly renewed need to address is the will to live forever he must break off, reaching finally the ultimate serenity linked to the extinction of all desire. In Schopenhauer's Aesthetics, the aesthetic viewpoint is more objective than the scientific viewpoint precisely because it separates the intellect from the Will in the form of art. The truth dream. It was observed early in the history of Beckett studies that Beckett's essay on Marcel Proust, ... if sketchy, account of artistic life and artistic activity in general on the basis of Schopenhauer's philosophy. But to truly be free, he must go to Nirvana. He was 72. Often considered a gloomy and thoroughgoing pessimist, Schopenhauer was actually concerned with advocating ways (via artistic, moral and ascetic forms of awareness) to overcome a frustration-filled and fundamentally painful human condition. The numerous notes that he made during these years, amongst others on agin… Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy study guide and get instant access to the following:. Schopenhauer’s Philosophy Summary. See the additional sources and recommended reading list below, or check the philosophy books page for a full list. Schopenhauer is a METAPHYSICAL pessimist. In 1821, he fell in love with a 19-year old opera singer, Caroline Richter (known as "Medon"), and had a relationship with her for several years (including an illegitimate child, although the child died the same year). Pessimistic thinker, Arthur Schopenhauer has shattered the illusions performed on human and had a considerable influence on the history of philosophy (Nietzsche), on the art (Wagner) or literature (Maupassant) . His identification of three primary moral incentives was a central aspect of his mission: compassion (the genuine motivator to moral expression), and malice and egoism (the corruptors of moral incentives). However, it is later in his career that his work gained a lot of recognition from other philosophers, poets, musicians, and artists. Then, philosophy related to the activity of argue rationally about astonishment. Summary Nietzsche introduces this essay by asking, "what is the meaning of ascetic ideals?" There are numerous paraphrases of Schopenhauer's texts and even quite a few literal quotations, which Beckett drew from Schopenhauer without communicating the source to his reader. He argued that the pursuit of happiness and the production of children are two radically separate ideas that love maliciously confuses us into thinking of as one in the interests of the propagation of the species. He also held anti-Semitic views (arguing that Christianity constituted a revolt against the materialistic basis of Judaism), a chauvinistic attitude to women (claiming that "woman is by nature meant to obey"), and a partiality for the possibilities of eugenics. Born in February 1788, Schopenhauer wrote many articles and books. The site thus covers the main philosophical traditions, from the Presocratic to the contemporary philosophers, while trying to bring a philosophical reading to the cultural field in general, such as cinema, literature, politics or music. Nothing is either known to us or thinkable by us except will and idea. – This pessimism, Nietzsche will remotely, the feeling of happiness (true) becoming, in his mind, feeling of fullness, not mere “negativity”. Arthur Schopenhauer, a German philosopher, is essentially the author of the following works: – The fourfold root of the principle of sufficient reason (1813), – The World as Will and Representation (1818), – The Two Fundamental Problems of Ethics (1841),