Short & Rahim define TQM is a proactive approach, to confirm quality into the product, service and design of the process and then to continually improve it [4]. Total Quality Management: Definition, Characteristics and Benefits. A quality culture is a system of shared values, beliefs, and norms that focuses on delighting customers and continuously improving the quality of products and services. notice that lack of top management commitment affects TQM efforts negatively, which is one of the main reasons of failure of TQM efforts [52]. While conducting an initial investigation it was also revealed that there are critical challenges in implementing TQM in education. TQM as a management model, with its emphasis on leadership, strategy, teamwork, rigorous analysis and self-assessment, has a universal message. In the case of scholarship students, sponsors are the customers. The first level is to the management processes of a school. Since this concept was initially developed in the manufacturing sector, therefore, there is a great deal of suspicion whether this philosophy is applicable in education. With business playing a key role in the initiation of TQM at colleges and universities through companies like Motorola and IBM, there will be a significant increase in the application of TQM to higher education in the next five to ten years. According to Houston, the definition (customer) prevails in industry or business environment which based on the idea of satisfying customers’ needs and expectations, is a problematic one in education [54]. However, defining and identifying customer is a challenge in education. notice some critical obstacles such as: ineffective leadership; obstruction to change; contradictory policies; inappropriate organizational structure; and poor management of the change process are other shortcomings in implementing TQM [59]. Michael et al. discuss the application of Six Sigma, Service Quality (SERVQUAL), ISO9000, and TQM in higher education [44]. TQM principles are compatible with higher education as mentioned by Helms and Key [26] and Venkatraman [27]. It has the capacity to provide practical solutions, positive results in academic and administrative functions. ); resistance from the faculty members as it (TQM) impedes their authority and freedom, violate the confidentiality related to assessment, promotion, salary and so forth and practice of teamwork in education process as these are not consistent with the traditional teaching process; and defining customers and measuring outcomes are two major difficulties in implementing TQM in education since a wide range of customers (like students, parents, researchers, alumni, business firms and so on) are involved in higher education so it very difficult who are the real customers in education, it is equally difficult to measure the outcomes of quality initiatives [57]. In this In this paper education refers to primary, secondary and tertiary level education, including professional and vocational education, etc. [12]. The school teachers must establish the context in which students can best achieve their potential through the continuous improvement that results from teachers and students working together. reveal that a number of TQM elements have a critical role in process improvement including, “leadership”, “vision”, “measurement and evaluation”, “process control and improvement”, “program design”, “quality system improvement”, “employee involvement”, “recognition and reward”, “evaluation and training”, “student focus”, and “other stakeholder focus” in higher education [43]. Furthermore, each institution should be a learning organization focusing on the individual development of the learner, as well as the empowerment of all staff as emphasized by Spanbauer [13]. There is a wide range of tools and techniques available in TQM. While attaining these objectives this study would make a special focus on the term TQM so that the characteristics and the potential benefits of adopting TQM can be visualized to all. TQM has taken a battering as the Japanese economy has shown its frailties. All concerned parties of the education are actively considering implementing TQM in education because it is believed that quality education is one of the fundamental building blocks of economic development. Reviewing fresh literature from the internet and other sources, the works of W. Edward Deming’s: fourteen principles for quality assurance, Philip Crosby’s: fourteen points for quality … Nevertheless, in this connection the remark of Sousa and Voss is quite thought provoking; they comment that TQM principles are not universally applicable across all contexts but are contingent on contextual factors [45] [46]. From the abovementioned discussion, it is clear that TQM is credibly compatible with the education. 6. ZVƒ]=ÖÎÄßê"´Dw(?#É35bš‘¬›ŠÁ‘œLXý(#ºÖQ}#ï¥é›ørˋØlÃÏj(¡ªeF»[email protected]œbª1t§ã½¬i:ýø2YÇvi³†f»µ;¤Í©,¨™‹¬–Oº³QEôb`Z™©çëe F:?.™U?JXÑMOɕâ{œ Y«r‹švÔíÍ®Ë~ÅØÙìAM|§GÏWñ€åjØû}‹N]Æ$“ç¿/¯Kõü TQM values are only somewhat useful in a dynamic and changing environment which is a characteristic of modern higher education as observed by Koch and Fisher [36], and Houston [37]. TQM tends to put more emphasizes on non-academic activities (e.g. ... demonstrate openly and decisively an ongoing personal commitment to Total Quality Management and its application to the continuing improvement of schools and their people. This situation is complicated in the case of tertiary level of education. In a highly competitive education sector, the success of academic institutions depends on the quality of education. It enhances a feeling of confidence and trust and alleviates insecurity and fear among members of an institution. Total Quality Management (TQM) has been adopted by many organizations worldwide, its implementation in non-profit organizations, such as higher education institutions, presents more challenges and difficulties than those encountered in business organizations. Sohel-Uz-Zaman, A. and Anjalin, U. TQM Components in the High School Mt. in quality improvement. Kosgeidetectsa number of challenges in this regard, too; these are: lack of commitment by the management and some workforce, school’s organizational culture, poor documentation, inadequate training of staff, and ineffective communication [60]. There are some authors who are very much confident about the applicability of TQM in education. TQM is exploited in educational system, which offers assistance in teaching and learning process in order to continuous improvement in quality through the complete educational process. “Total Quality Management” (TQM), and its application in the field of education. In addition, they learn quality-related Now, TQM is recognized as a generic management tool and applicable to any organization. Total Quality P~ciples in education throughout North Amenca Education, ke business and indu- before it, must be willing to change in order to reflect the needs of our changing society and economy.  TQM in education has as its message the idea that every student has worth and demands the best possible chance in life 5. Murad and Rajesh perceive TQM is a general management philosophy and a blend of various tools which induce educational institutions to pursue a description of quality and the means to achieve it [35]. The role of individual, particularly the teachers are often informal and less bureaucratic in traditional education system. According to Koslowski, in this age of intense competition, quality education is a major concern [2]. Houston mentions that the way the definition of quality is given based on the customers’ needs and expectations in business and industry environments is not totally appropriate for education [54]. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work. TQM aims at achieving quality in everything one does. Yudof and Busch-Vishniacstate that TQM embraces the norm that organizations should listen to their customers, continually evaluate how well they are responding to their needs and initiate change in order to meet or exceed the desires of the customers [14]. TQM APPROACH IN TAECHING AND LEARNING PROCESS In any educational system, quality of teaching and learning is an essential and important part. TQM advocates about the people development very explicitly because business excellence largely depends on the extent employees of an organization are capable in their respective fields. Applies the concepts to a towards a financial and services centre. As a whole, the state is also a customer. Total Quality Management (TQM) is methodology that facilities adapting to today’s changing external environment. education have begun to explore various management processes (McMillan, 1998). According to Massy, the extreme resistance to quality process improvement comes from professors who consider it is just another business-oriented craze; a typical mindset may undermine the effectiveness of TQM is education[50]. As specified by British Standard Institution, TQM is composed of a “management doctrine and company patterns which intent to rein the human and material resources of an organization in the most efficient way to attain the goal of the organization” [22]. According to Srivanci, without a precise definition of customer and a customer focus, quality efforts may be easily diffused [25]. TQM is the holistic management approach that incorporates all the organizational activities to satisfy customers’ needs and achieving overall organizational objectives as outlined by Kumar et al. TQM means achieving quality in terms of all functions of the enterprise. Ali and Shastri comment that vagueness in customer identification also creates obstacles in TQM implementation [55]. ERIC Digest No. find that the customers of higher education are much more diverse and not so easily defined [56]. Some educators believe that philosophy which is developed for business may not be appropriate for service organization like educational institutions. Although higher education institutions are not like companies but, some of the basic principles and tools are applicable as these are instruments at the service institutions and their governance and management boards subject to the institution’s academic mission, goals and strategies as noticed by Dill [38] and Harvey [39]. It (TQM) is a method by which management and employees are involved in continuous improvement of the production of goods and services. Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. Instead, it is wise to choose those tools and techniques which are consistent with an academic institution. The schools or other type of academic institutions are very much different with a different ethos and characteristics that made difficult, or even impossible to implement a philosophy which has been derived from industry [47] [48] [49] [50]. The basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the question(s) of quality in business aswell as in the field of education. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Uzunboylu doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.826 CY-ICER 2012 Application of six-sigma in educational quality management Javad Mehrabi a * a Factually of management and Accounting,Islammic Azad … In TQM customer is an exclusive issue and customer satisfaction is considered as a major source of business success. However, according to Baird et al. The biggest obstacle could be the commitment from the parties involved with education system, especially the top management and teachers. Bayraktar et al.