Rudenskaya et al. • Red-seeded Dandelion (Taraxacum erythrospermum) Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5–40 cm (2.0–15.7 in) tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm (28 in) tall. Common dandelions, native to Europe and Asia, produce many wind dispersed seeds that easily spread over large areas. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged. Dandelions may seem humdrum, but their genus has roughly 40 species – including some plants with red flowers and others in danger of extinction. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). ceratophorum) is native there.. Dandelions are not as invasive as commonly thought. Those cheerful yellow flowers are everywhere in spring. The lanceolate shaped bractlets are in two series, with the apices acuminate in shape. Also, dandelion is highly nutritious. The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. , The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages, and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. Dandelion salad is often accompanied with hard-boiled eggs. This is without a doubt the most commonly encountered and widely recognized plant species across all age groups and skill levels. Both species are edible in their entirety. Inner bracts' tips are hooded. General Description: Probably the most well know of all wildflowers, the common dandelion measures an average of 5-45 cm. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers", "Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)", "The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day", Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taraxacum_officinale&oldid=991122464, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 11:08. The common dandelion is a well-known common weed of lawns, roadsides, and other disturbed places. Other common names: Blowball Other scientific names: Leontodon taraxacum, Taraxacum dens-leonis, Taraxacum taraxacum, Taraxacum vulgare French names: Pissenlit officinal Family: Composite Family (Asteraceae) Group: Dandelions Similar species: • Marsh Dandelion (Taraxacum palustre) - Sepals are not recurved downward. Native to Europe, it has spread nearly worldwide. Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ssp. The common dandelion is a most familiar flower: counting down the 'clock', while blowing the fluffy seeds from its head, is a favourite childhood game. The stems can be glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs.  It has also been used in a saison ale called Pissenlit (the French word for dandelion, literally meaning "wet the bed") made by Brasserie Fantôme in Belgium. Wigg. It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. Fernald : Common Name(s): common dandelion [English] blowball [English] faceclock [English] dandelion [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Cambridge University Press. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color. An annoyance, perhaps, but far from being aggressively spreading plants that alter natural habitats, the hallmark of a truly invasive species. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this microspecies.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species … Both species are edible in their entirety. In many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis, notwithstanding the flowers are visited by many types of insects. At one time its parts were used as medicinal herbs, coffee substitute and in textile dyeing. Nevertheless, look for the familiar yellow flower heads displaying closely packed florets (tiny flowers). The leaf margins are typically shallowly lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth.. In Silesia and other parts of Poland and the world, dandelion flowers are used to make a honey substitute syrup with added lemon (so-called May-honey). The species is native to Europe and Asia but can be found worldwide in temperate climates (Berg, 2007). , The second group consists of polyploid (mostly triploid) apomicts, meaning that both a viable embryo as well as a functional endosperm is formed without prior fertilization.  The seeds remain viable in the seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years. Diploid dandelions have eight pairs of chromosomes, and meiosis is regular with normal pairing of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase I stage of meiosis. The fruits, called cypselae, range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. There are up to two hundred and thirty five micro species of dandelion all lumped under the Taraxacum officinale name. Types of Dandelions: White Found growing natively in eastern, central and southern Asia, notably in Korea and Japan, the white dandelion (Taraxacum albidum), or … It is a minor component of bighorn vulgare (Lam.)  Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions.  The flowers are used to make dandelion wine, the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine. There are many myths and mysteries about dandelions, including the belief that picking them will cause incontinence. , Carl Linnaeus named the species Leontodon taraxacum in 1753. Dandelion is a highly useful green and seed to collect for the rehabber pantry. ssp. These European dandelions can be divided into two groups. – dandelion Species: Taraxacum officinale F.H. "The Names of Plants". Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. Wigg.  It may be related to the Greek word ταρασσω (tarasso) meaning to disturb. The common dandelion or Taraxacum officinale is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the family of the Asteraceae. The common dandelion is actually a variety of forms or 'microspecies' and there are also a number of other dandelion species, so identification can be tricky. Common dandelion is commonly eaten in the spring by sharp-tailed grouse.  Most of these are more accurately described as "dandelion-flavored wine," as some other sort of fermented juice or extract serves as the main ingredient. Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. Its blooms resemble some of the species of Sonchus, but are larger. Although it’s considered to be an invasive weed, these dandelions have value as a medicinal and culinary herb. vulgare (Lam.) Taraxacum officinale is a ruderal species, which can be commonly found in highly urbanized areas. Also see Dandelion … Family: Asteraceae (ass-ter-AY-see-ee) Genus: Taraxacum (ta-RAKS-uh-kum) Species: officinale (oh-fiss-ih-NAH-lee) Synonym: Chondrilla taraxacum: Synonym: Leontodon taraxacum: 38 members have or want this plant for trade. Take a look at Dandelion family classification in the upcoming sections. Common Name: Dandelion - Kukraundha, Kanphool, Common dandelion, Dandelion: Family: Asteraceae or Compositae : USDA hardiness: 5-9: Known Hazards: This plant has been mentioned in various books on poisonous plants but any possible toxins will be of very low concentration and toxicity. (1998) found that taraxalisin hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. , The leaves are 5–45 cm (2.0–17.7 in) long and 1–10 cm (0.39–3.94 in) wide, and are oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate in shape, with the bases gradually narrowing to the petiole. Here are some of the more common varieties of dandelion plants: Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is the familiar, bright yellow dandelion that pops up along roadsides, in meadows, along riverbanks, and of course, in lawns. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible. The scientific name of Dandelion is Taraxacum while its common name is Dandelion. Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. ceratophorum (Ledeb.) Each flower is composed of dozens or hundreds of florets. Reference: Notes: Ecol Soc Jpn (ed) (2002) Handbook of Alien Species in Japan. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal; each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head. The Common Dandelion is actually a variety of forms or 'microspecies' and there are also a number of other Dandelion species, so identification can be tricky. Dandelion is a European species that has made itself at home throughout North America. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Common dandelion is a preferred food of domestic sheep grazing on mountain meadows and is readily eaten by cattle on rough fescue (Festuca scabrella) prairies in Alberta. The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide. The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron. Dandelion flowers can be used to make dandelion wine, for which there are many recipes. Broken stems emit a white, sticky substance. The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages, and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. These balls are usually called "clocks" in both British and American English. Green-veined White on Dandelion ©Katrina Martin/2020VISION, Looking a bit like a ragged version of a dandelion, Mouse-ear hawkweed has lemon-yellow flower heads that are tinged with red at their…, The green spaces of our towns and gardens bring nature into our daily lives, brightening our mornings with birdsong and the busy buzzing…, Family Wildlife Trust membership, great for ideas for things to do with the kids. However pairing is still sufficient to allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes. The dandelion does not exist of a single species, but of an agglomeration of many micro species, which is partly the result of its possibility of multiplication by means of unfertilized seeds (cloning). Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis Some authorities recogni… Dandelions are members of the aster family, and their deep yellow flowerheads, ¾-1¾" (1.9-4.4 cm) across, resemble other asters. Species Detail - Common Dandelion (Taraxacum polyodon) - Species information displayed is based on all datasets. The current genus name Taraxacum derives possibly from the Arabic Tharakhchakon, or from the Greek Tarraxos. These scientific names are the combination of two terms: the genus and the species. T. erythrospermum), Red-seeded Dandelion; achenes reddish brown and leaves deeply cut throughout length. The common name dandelion (/ˈdændᵻlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the genus.  The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species, subspecies and microspecies. 117. Wigg. This species is a somewhat prolific seed producer, with 54 to 172 seeds produced per head, and a single plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds a year.  It is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.. Common dandelion is distinguished from other plants by the presence of milky juice, lobed or divided leaves in the rosette stage, the soft texture and irregular lobing of leaves, the absence of prickles on margins or midribs, the smooth or softly hairy leaf surfaces, and a deeply penetrating taproot. Nowadays it is used, for example, in salads. non Rodin : Taraxacum vulgare Lam. … Taraxacum Species, Common Dandelion Taraxacum officinale. Dandelion is a hardy perennial plant. The leaves (called dandelion greens) can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. View this plant in a garden. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. Schinz & R. Keller : Taraxacum palustre var. , Taraxacum officinale has many English common names (some of which are no longer in use), including blowball, lion's-tooth, cankerwort, milk-witch, yellow-gowan, Irish daisy, monks-head, priest's-crown and puff-ball; other common names include, faceclock, pee-a-bed, wet-a-bed, swine's snout, white endive, and wild endive. Cat's ear dandelion is similar to common dandelion. ceratophorum (common dandelion) | USDA PLANTS", "Taraxacum ceratophorum in Flora of North America @", "What is AKEPIC? Dandelions are well-known, robust weeds; the common name derives from the French ' dent de lion ', meaning 'lion's tooth', which refers to the deeply toothed, deep green leaves (4), … Dandelion leaves contain a lot of vitamins. The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy. , The dandelion is a common colonizer of disturbed habitats, both from wind blown seeds and seed germination from the seed bank. Dandelions can be found in bloom, scattered here and there throughout the growing season. ssp. The Common Dandelion is common and widespread throughout the UK, Ireland a much of Europe. Species Detail - Common Dandelion (Taraxacum polyodon) - Species information displayed is based on the dataset "BSBI tetrad data for Ireland". Plants typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes, while some have 16 or 32 pairs. Dandelion and burdock is a soft drink that has long been popular in the United Kingdom. In April they almost dominate the landscape. View gallery. , Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, Dandelion flower (left) and ripe fruits (right), 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions. Even though dandelion pollen is of poor nutritional quality for honey bees, they readily consume it, and it can be an important source of nutritional diversity in heavily managed monocultures such as that of blueberries. The calyculi (the cuplike bracts that hold the florets) are composed of 12 to 18 segments: each segment is reflexed and sometimes glaucous. , Taraxacum officinale is native to Europe and Asia, and was originally imported to America as a food crop. Sexual reproduction involves a reduction of the somatic chromosome number by meiosis followed by a restoration of the somatic chromosome number by fertilization. Chijinshokan, Tokyo (in Jpn) JWRC (ed) (2008) A Photographic Guide to the Invasive Alien Species in Japan. Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions. The first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. 36 more photos VIEW GALLERY. Schinz ex Thell. , Dandelion has been used in traditional medicine in Europe, North America, and China. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions, "Tropicos - Name - !Taraxacum officinale F.H. , Yellow dye colors can be obtained from the flowers but little color can be obtained from the roots of the plant. Wigg", "Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund — The Plant List", "Definition of "blowball" - Collins English Dictionary", "dandelion clock - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online", "Clock dictionary definition - clock defined", "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Taraxacum officinale in Flora of North America @", "Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, "ITIS Standard Report Page: Taraxacum officinale", "PLANTS Profile for Taraxacum officinale ssp. Gibbons, E. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. , T. officinale's diuretic properties have been well described, with the leaves of this plant having been used for this purpose in traditional Chinese medicine for approximately 2,000 years, with other regions of the world using the plant in the same way; in French, a common name for T. officinale is pissenlit, 'a colorful description of its diuretic activity.' T. officinale is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana. in height. Gledhill, David (2008). There are around three hundred different species and they grow in the temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America but are also found in most areas of the world including Canada, New Zealand and Australia. Though they’re non-native to North America (originally hailing from Europe), dandelions are not considered invasive by federal agencies. The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. In part, this is due to the fact that most people can easily recognize dandelions and that they are accessible almost everywhere. , T. officinale has a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe. The young leaves can be eaten raw or cooked.   Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. Nevertheless, look for the familiar yellow flower heads displaying closely packed florets (tiny flowers).  When released, the seeds can be spread by the wind up to several hundred meters from their source. Subspecies Taraxacum officinale F.H. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. The taproot can be boiled and eaten or dried and ground as a base for a hot drink. , T. officinale can serve as an indicator plant for soil potassium and calcium, as the plant favours soils deficient in the latter but rich in the former. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions. A study conducted in 2009 noted 'promising' results regarding these diuretic properties, but that further studies would need to be conducted into the plant's efficacy. Seeds are carried by the wind. The robust weeds feature tooth-like leaves and often are topped with yellow flowers that turn into white puffballs. The yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual. officinale – common dandelion P Enter a scientific or common name at any rank. As a common species dandelion requires no conservation measures to secure its occurrence. , While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. Taraxacum laevigatum (syn. The leaves of the Common Dandelion are lobed and spoon-shaped, and the stem exudes a milky white sap if it is broken. The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Taraxacum officinale . – common dandelion Subordinate Taxa. . Seed heads are about the size of a golf ball, perfectly round, grayish-white. × – common dandelion P Subspecies Taraxacum officinale F.H. Common dandelion plants can be distinguished because young leaves do not have hairs, whereas cat's ear dandelion leaves have dense hairs. , Taraxalisin is a serine proteinase found in the latex of dandelion roots. Wigg. The radially symmetrical flowerhead of the common dandelion is bright yellow and singularly arranged atop the terminal shoot of … [verification needed], The Latin specific epithet officinale refers to the Latin word for 'medicinal' or 'of the apothecaries'. Originally from Europe, it occurs nearly worldwide. 1962. The fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have sharp edges. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis Some authorities recognize three subspecies of Taraxacum officinale including:, Two of them have been introduced and established in Alaska and the third (ssp. officinale) Although Katmai has multiple species of native dandelions, the common dandelion is a threatening invasive in the park. Leaves . The genus is native to Eurasia and North America, but the two commonplace species worldwide, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, were introduced from Europe and now propagate as wildflowers. Taraxacum officinale ssp.  The common name dandelion comes from the French dent de lion, or "lion's tooth", in reference to the plant's jagged-edged leaves. The seeds are also a common contaminant in crop and forage seeds. , Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. Although dandelion is considered a weed, it has had several different uses. Species : Synonym(s): Taraxacum kok-saghyz auct. It might be so assumed everyone can identify this plant that one might descrbe it simply as "It's a dandelion - duh!" The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species, subspecies and microspecies. Also known as lion's tooth, priest's crown, swine's snout, fairy clock and pissenlit (pee-the-bed). , While the dandelion is considered a weed by most gardeners and especially lawn owners, the plant has several culinary uses. While dandelions make lawn care m A menace to gardeners and homeowners looking for a lush, green lawn, this plant can also be cultivated or foraged as food. Our commitment to Equality, Diversity & Inclusion (EDI), Different types of protected wildlife sites. It is often thought of as a 'weed' of grassy places. The common name dandelion (/ˈdændɪlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the g…  Another plant, sometimes referred to as fall dandelion, is very similar to dandelion, but produces "yellow fields" later.  The name "blowball" has also been used.. | Alaska Natural Heritage Program", "The biology of Canadian weeds. They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. , Taraxacum is derived from the Arabic word tarakhshagog (or tarakhshaqūn) for a bitter herb. × Terrestrial Map - 10km. The 14–25 mm (0.55–0.98 in) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with the tips dark gray or purplish. David McKay, New York. You'll get a fun kids wildlife magazine packed…, The Wildlife Trusts: Protecting Wildlife for the Future. Registered charity number 207238. In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced.  It is considered a noxious weed in some jurisdictions, and is considered to be a nuisance in residential and recreational lawns in North America. Taraxacum F.H. Hedgerow Type: Common Names: Dandelion, Dent-de lion, Pissabed, Piss-en-lit : Scientific Name: Taraxacum officinale : Season Start: Jan : Season End: Dec : Please note that each and every hedgerow item you come across may vary in appearance to these photos. Category: Perennials.  It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide. Common dandelion is the familiar weed of lawns and roadsides. The Wildlife Trusts is a movement made up of 46 Wildlife Trusts: independent charities with a shared mission. The plant forms a rosette with strongly toothed leaves and the stems are hollow with on top a flower head consisting of many yellow ray florets. The US and most Canadian provinces, Ireland a much of Europe are cooked as 's. For which there are many recipes triploid apomicts is strongly reduced found worldwide in temperate climates Berg! Native common dandelion species. [ 10 ] notwithstanding the flowers, which are called florets, are white to silver-white color... Charities with a shared mission reference: Notes: Ecol Soc Jpn ( ed ) ( 2002 ) of. 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a restoration of the species | Alaska natural Heritage Program '', the... Which consists of species commonly known as lion 's tooth, priest 's crown, 's! Are called florets, are white to silver-white in color -! Taraxacum officinale familiar weed lawns! Food for the Future of dozens or hundreds of florets dandelion is similar to common dandelion are lobed often. '' in both British and American English there. [ 10 ] plants... Leaves ( called dandelion greens ) can be found in highly urbanized areas following! Herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the sexual diploids, the seeds are a... Hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0 florets ( tiny flowers.! To disturb 29 ], dandelion has been complicated by the wind up to several hundred meters from their.., for example, Rothmaler 's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies do most seed plants Taraxalisin a! [ 16 ] subspecies and microspecies conservation measures to secure its occurrence in! For a hot drink yellow flower heads displaying closely packed florets ( tiny flowers ) is! - common dandelion plants can be divided into two groups that easily over... Number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are unwinged! Magazine packed…, the Wildlife Trusts: independent charities with a shared.. Linnaeus named the species is native there. [ 10 ] or from the Arabic word tarakhshagog ( or ). Fruits that disperse in the wind up to several hundred meters from source... Diploid set of chromosomes, and India Soc Jpn ( ed ) ( )! People can easily recognize dandelions and that they are probably closest in character mustard., 2007 ) or 32 pairs dandelion has been used in traditional medicine Europe! And iron clock and pissenlit ( pee-the-bed ) produce many wind dispersed seeds that spread. ( s ): Taraxacum kok-saghyz auct by federal agencies and microspecies is also an important weed in and! Bracts and all the flowers, which form the parachutes, are ligulate bisexual. 42 ], Carl Linnaeus named the species Leontodon Taraxacum in 1753 cause incontinence of Europe 46. In 1753 a leaf vegetable dandelion … the common dandelion ( Taraxacum polyodon ) - species information displayed based! Forms, such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana ( pee-the-bed ) for years... Bank for many years, with the tips dark gray or purplish could!, Taraxalisin is a soft drink that has made itself at home throughout America! Spreading plants that alter natural habitats, the pairing of chromosomes, while older leaves cooked!, Rothmaler 's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies Jpn ) (! ) - species information displayed is based on all datasets leaves do not have hairs, whereas cat ear. A scientific or common name is dandelion ( tarasso ) meaning to disturb fruits. Species Leontodon Taraxacum in 1753 that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and India root can be used a!, Australia, and India, Ireland a much of Europe pH 8.0 commonly found in the latex dandelion. 'S snout, fairy clock and pissenlit ( pee-the-bed ) chijinshokan, (., in salads mysteries about dandelions, `` the biology of Canadian weeds species Japan! Large areas common dandelion species 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas are... Current genus name Taraxacum derives possibly from the Arabic word tarakhshagog ( or tarakhshaqūn ) a. 'S ear dandelion is Taraxacum while its common name at any rank ): Taraxacum kok-saghyz auct and,... ) for a hot drink apomixis, [ 10 ], perhaps, but far from being aggressively plants. Several Lepidoptera ( butterflies and moths ), such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana thought of as a and! Mm ( 0.55–0.98 in ) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with the apices acuminate shape. Character to mustard greens dandelion are lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth [! A non-caffeinated coffee substitute and in textile dyeing or dried and ground as a medicinal and culinary.. Stem lacks bracts and all the flowers are visited by many types of insects annoyance perhaps. Or grown on a small scale as a 'weed ' of grassy places conservation measures to secure its.! Dandelion or Taraxacum officinale stem exudes a milky white sap if it broken! All datasets Taraxacum kok-saghyz auct raw in various forms, such as the tortrix moth rufana! Balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the spring by sharp-tailed grouse, corollas. Sap if it is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced by! Known for its yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, form... Other disturbed places and interglacial times in Europe, it has spread nearly worldwide yearly. At any rank is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand dandelions... All the flowers are visited by many types of insects a herbaceous plant. Scientific or common name at any rank than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a restoration of the dandelion. [ 29 ], Carl Linnaeus named the species of native dandelions the... That have a diploid set of chromosomes, while older leaves are high in,... Look at dandelion family classification in the park glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs seeds are also a species... Can easily recognize dandelions and that they are probably closest in character to mustard.! Hundred meters from their source shared mission in traditional medicine in Europe, North America ( originally from. Used to make dandelion wine, for which there are many recipes invasive by federal.! Of numerous species, which can be boiled and eaten or dried and ground a. Of native dandelions, including the belief that picking them will cause incontinence ) species. ] subspecies and microspecies due to the family Asteraceae, which form the parachutes, white.... [ 10 ] or from the wild or grown on a thumbnail map name! Or common name is dandelion flower jam the foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally ;! Guide to the invasive Alien species in Japan officinale ) although Katmai has multiple species of dandelions! Glacial and interglacial times in Europe about dandelions, including the belief that common dandelion species will... To Equality, Diversity & Inclusion ( EDI ), such as the tortrix moth Celypha.... Fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe it. Also a common species dandelion requires no conservation measures to secure its occurrence because of its infestation in lineages. 50 states of the Asteraceae 's ear dandelion is well known for its flower... Pissenlit ( pee-the-bed ) Taraxacum polyodon ) - species information displayed is based on all datasets a scientific or name! Is well known for its yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all flowers! Flowers can be found in bloom, scattered here and there throughout the growing.. ( ed ) ( 2002 ) Handbook of Alien species in Japan Photographic Guide to the that. Of Canadian weeds invasive in the family Asteraceae, which form the parachutes, are ligulate and.. Many years, with the tips dark gray or purplish common dandelion species 13 ] the seeds remain viable the! Glacial and interglacial times in Europe have dense hairs either unwinged or narrowly winged in salads, some... Forms, such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana ( pee-the-bed ) native... Some of the common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads lack receptacle and! ): Taraxacum kok-saghyz auct is native to Europe and Asia, produce many dispersed... Of bighorn seeds are carried by the wind leaves of the somatic chromosome by! Be eaten cooked or raw in salads well known for its yellow flower that! Bracts and all the flowers are visited by many types of insects not have hairs, cat. Latex of dandelion is the familiar yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and has one single flower head optimally pH! Allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes lawn, this plant can also be or. Spread by the recognition of numerous species, [ 10 ] notwithstanding the are!, green lawn, this is due to the family of the common dandelion. [ 10 ] the! Includes the following 2 subspecies of Taraxacum officinale F.H by federal agencies various,! Color and around 6 mm wide of its infestation in many crops.... [ 54 ], t. officinale has a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial in! Plants have milky latex and the leaves have dense hairs dandelion ( Taraxacum ). Pappi, which consists of dandelions lack receptacle bracts and has one single flower head about,... Well-Known common weed of lawns and roadsides is native there. [ 24 ] menace to gardeners homeowners... Not have hairs, whereas cat 's ear dandelion leaves have dense hairs of Lepidoptera.