It is native throughout South Carolina. Christmas fern, Specializing in California native plants and habitat gardening since 1981 ... evergreen polypody. Not a very sharp photo when blown up, but I think the sori are circular. Most prefer a shady, moist area, but not all. Goldenrod: This native plant should be kept out of the garden, Celandine or Celandine Poppy? The first step is to learn the terminology, otherwise whatever you read in guide books or online makes no sense. Common Name Scientific Name Type Light Soil Moisture Serviceberry: Amelanchier arborea: deciduous: full / part-sun: mesic / sub-xeric: Devil’s walkingstick Grow in part shade however Christmas Fern can tolerate more sun and drought than other fern varieties. Christmas fern, Polystichum acrostichoides, is so named because it’s been used for holiday decorations. Grow in light to full shade anywhere in South Carolina. Lists of All Native Vascular Plants by New Jersey County. Lady Fern (Athyrium filix-femina): This vigorous fern has upright, deciduous leaves 24 to 48 inches tall. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. Grown in light to full shade, with constant moisture, anywhere in South Carolina except the coast. Most ferns require a moist, shady spot to grow — either in a wooded area or near the north side of a building. Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC. Christmas fern fronds are pretty distinctive, and since it’s one of the few evergreen ferns native to northeast North America, I’m pretty sure I’ve identified it correctly. All Rights Reserved. Provide supplemental water during dry periods. Rhizome division. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 1176 | Published: Nov 28, 2003 | Print. Marginal Wood Fern (Dryopteris marginalis): The leathery, evergreen fronds of this fern grow 24 to 36 inches tall. It can stand some drought in shade. ©Maryland Native Plant Society PO Box 4877, Silver Spring, MD 20914 MNPS is a registered 501(c)(3) charitable organization incorporated in Maryland. “It doesn’t matter if we sometimes show the same plants. Rhizome division. While most ferns average between one and three feet tall and wide, some, such as resurrection fern, grow only a few inches tall. I love ferns. Christmas fern, Autumn fern and Himalayan maidenhair fern all look fairly good when the snow melts in my garden. Fairview, NC 28730, Southern maidenhair fern. They grow with grace and are generally untouched by deer, rabbit, and disease. Foliar nematodes, which cause reddish brown areas between the leaf veins, can attack some ferns. Sensitive Fern. Autumn Ferns, for example, can handle dry shade. Holly Fern (Cyrtomium spp. aleuticum. So named due to its copper color when young, our native evergreen Autumn Fern matures to a lovely dark green. Many of our native ferns are easy to identify once one learns what to look for. Prefers constant moisture, but can stand some drought. Typically rhizomatous, native ferns are a popular choice for ground cover in shady areas. Southern Wood Fern (Dryopteris Ludoviciana): This evergreen fern is native to the Coastal Plains of South Carolina, in swamps and along stream banks. Myth 64 - Frost is more likely when there is a full moon. Here they are during February of last year. Preferring partial shade Mountain Laurel is the state shrub of Pennsylvania. It prefers some sun to light shade, does not like wet soils. : Wildflower Wednesday. Ferns may be propagated by division or from spores (see THE FERN LIFE CYCLE, below). Ferns may also be grown in raised beds, which provide good drainage. Rhizome division. It is a very striking fern. Kathy’s been writing since 4th grade, gardening since high school, and blogging since 2002. Ever wonder what the little brown dots are on the back of a fern leaf? Grow in light to full shade. Sandy soils also benefit from mixing in a 2-inch layer of organic material tilled in because it helps them retain moisture. Its sword-like fronds can grow to be 4 feet long with glossy green foliage and its clumping form can spread anywhere from 3 to 6 feet. Can be grown throughout South Carolina, except for the coast. I want to start learning more about ferns. It’s always the fourth Wednesday of the month!”, Tagged as: Posted for Wildflower Wednesday, created by Gail of Clay and Limestone, to share wildflowers/native plants no matter where you garden in the blogosphere. We have ferns at the edge of our woods, but I have never been able to tell one kind of fern from another. glistening in filtered sunlight. Chartreuse in-terrupted ferns (Osmunda claytoniana) combine well with dark evergreen ferns and variegated foliage. Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas Fern) ilex opaca (American Holly) Lady Fern fiddleheads were also sometimes eaten by natives… These lists are based on USDA … Ebony Spleenwort (Asplenium platyneuron): This fern has erect, dark evergreen fronds 6 to 20 inches tall. Resurrection fern. Diatomaceous earth works well on slugs. This large deciduous fern is vase shaped and will reach greatest height with ample water and rich soil. I have also had Lady Fern. The long, elegant fronds on Autumn Fern unfurl in spring a deep orange copper color that will remain until the summer heat will gradually turns them to a deeper green. Rhizome division. Clump division is a method used for ferns with fibrous roots. We don’t have much snow down here in North Florida. Both ferns are supposed to have scales on the stipe. Bracken Fern fiddleheads were eaten by some natives but are now known to be poisonous to livestock & are considered carcinogenic. What you’ve got is Dryopteris intermedia, identifiable by the sori and the lower pinnae on each frond. They grow right up against … Their hardiness varies, depending on the species, and they come in a wide variety of colors, sizes, and shapes. Alternately, they may serve as above-ground storage … Now I try to be more careful about making notes about what I planted where. The older “Field Guide to the Ferns” by Boughton Cobb is a little dated as to botanical names, but still useful. Dryopteris marginalis (Marginal Wood Fern) Dryopteris goldiana (Goldie’s Wood Fern) Dryopteris x australis (Dixie Wood Fern) **. It is one of the most common ferns in eastern North America, being found in moist and shady habitats in woodlands, stream … Aleuticum is derived from the … Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern) is an evergreen fern native to eastern North America from Nova Scotia west to Minnesota … Grow in light to full shade. Ferns may also be divided in very early spring, just as the new growth is emerging, if care is taken not to damage the delicate new leaves. Ferns have few pest problems if care is taken to meet their growing requirements. The 24 inch upright fronds take on an autumn color again in the fall. Many need plenty of moisture during the growing season and should be given an inch or more of water per week if not supplied by rains. Wikimedia Commons Jesmond Dene GNU Free Documentation License 1.2, Winter coloration of autumn fern fronds. Provide supplemental water during dry periods. I used to have Christmas fern but it got bullied out of a bed I guess because it disappeared. This understated fern, native to most of the eastern U.S. is one of the easiest to . I’m pretty sure this is intermediate wood fern (Dryopteris intermedia) and not lady fern (Athyrium felix-femina), but I’m not 100% certain. lady fern. Sturdy evergreen fronds that eventually form a clump 3-4’ tall and wide, forming sturdy, upright majestic clumps of ... Polypodium glycyrrhiza: Licorice Fern. Ferns give a delicate and airy quality to a shady garden. Rhizome division. Kathy Purdy is a colchicum evangelist, converting unsuspecting gardeners into colchicophiles. Ferns. While most of the ferns discussed here prefer acidic soils with a pH of 4 to 7, both southern and northern maidenhairs as well as ebony spleenwort prefer a more alkaline soil with a pH of 7 to 8. All ferns grow best in soils with a high organic matter content. For more information, see HGIC 1652, Soil Testing and HGIC 1650, Changing the pH of Your Soil. Scaly Male Fern (Dryopteris affinis): This tall, vase shaped, semi-evergreen fern will grow 3 to 4 feet tall. Plant in sun to full shade, with constant moisture if planted in sun. Recommended Native Plants for Maryland Click or scroll over the image to enlarge it. This species also prefers constant moisture, but can withstand some drought. Ferns can serve as the backbone of a shade garden by creating a beautiful setting for a variety of woodland wildflowers. Of the ferns, Matteuccia struthiopteris (Ostrich Fern) and Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Hay-Scented Fern) spread the fastest but are deciduous. Propagate by rhizome division. Grow in light shade to full shade throughout South Carolina except for the coast. This list of winter hardy fern varieties has lots of perennial fern species you can use – tall ferns, evergreen ferns, short ferns and even a few ferns that will grow in the sun. Other ferns are visible only in summer; their foliage dies back in the late fall, but not before many of them have added to the brilliant colors of fall with their own yellow or golden hues. It’s a time of year when the leaves are down and the harvest is in and the perennials are gone. As an admitted pteridomaniac, I have a shelf-full of fern books. Rhizome division involves ferns that grow from thick underground stems called rhizomes. Prefers constant moisture but can stand some drought. ): Bold, coarse textured evergreen leaves make these large ferns a feature in the landscape year-round. Hardy ferns are tolerant of cold winter temperatures and can be grown outdoors year-round. Remove infected plants and destroy them. Grow in light to full shade. Blechnum chilense, Zones 7–9) is a rock-star evergreen fern that makes a huge impact in the garden. Join me as I try to identify these two ferns. For information on how to divide, see HGIC 1150, Dividing Perennials. Karen Russ, ©2008 HGIC, Clemson Extension, Dark, lacy leaves of Japanese tassel fern. Joey Williamson, ©2008 HGIC, Clemson Extension, Stately, vase-shaped form of male fern. Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides): Evergreen, upright, leathery fronds grow 24 to 36 inches tall. Most ferns are slow growing and can take several years to reach their mature size. Holly ferns grow up to 30 inches tall depending on species. Sensitive fern prefers constant moisture but can stand some drought. Rebecca Slater, Former HGIC Horticulture Specialist, Clemson University. Prefers constant moisture, but will withstand some drought. It grows 24 to 36 inches tall. Karen Russ, ©2008 HGIC, Clemson Extension, Frond of broad beech fern. Still, compared to many other plant groups, ferns have been relatively neglected. Will grow throughout South Carolina, except for along the coast. Plant in sun to full shade, with constant moisture in sun. intermediate wood fern, Strap shaped, long undivided fronds giving the plant it's common name Hart's (deer) Tongue fern. There are ferns that will grow in every area of South Carolina. Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, gender identity, marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer. Adiantum jordanii or Maiden Hair Fern is one of the cutest ferns you’ll find. Evergreen fern that requires cool, moist, well-drained soil in the shade. For an elegant groundcover in a shady spot, try hay scented, ostrich, sensitive, broad beech or southern shield ferns. Cinnamon, royal and southern shield ferns will grow in full sun if constant moisture is available. Grow in light to full shade. Some ferns, such as the Christmas Fern and Intermediate Wood Fern, are evergreen, and can be found all year. Photo by Joey Williamson, ©2008 HGIC, Clemson Extension, Upright fronds of ebony spleenwort fern. It’s especially nice since I do not have a vent fan in the bathroom so it is nice and humid and wet in there for my ferns (and orchids). I do not have any knowledge of ferns either, but in my new town garden I have northern maidenhair fern, and lady fern. It is wise to prepare a large area for ferns before planting, not just individual holes. Polystichum munitum: Sword Fern. Fiddleheads: Ostrich Fern fiddleheads are considered the best for edibility; they are more common on the east coast and are only found in BC in our region. Polystichum acrostichoides. Hayscented fern is native in the mountains of South Carolina and can be grown in the mountains and piedmont. It’s so easy to think that nothing is living or growing under the snow, but all you need is a January thaw and a stroll in the woods to see that there are plants that have not given in to the onslaught of cold and snow. Male Fern (Dryopteris filix-mas): This vase-shaped evergreen fern grows 3 to 5 feet tall. Interesting information here. The identity of the next fern is more ambiguous. You don't have to check here for new content. Rhizome division. 10 Log Gap Rd. Edge division involves cutting divisions from the outside edges of a clump. Sign up and you'll get an email every time I publish a new blog post! Karen Russ, ©2008 HGIC, Clemson Extension, Young plant of marginal wood fern. Copyright © 2020 Clemson UniversityClemson Cooperative Extension | 103 Barre Hall Clemson, SC 29634864-986-4310 | Contact [email protected], College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, Centipedegrass Yearly Maintenance Program. It turns out Dryopteris intermedia (aka intermediate wood fern, fancy fern, and glandular wood fern) also looks exactly like my fern. This South American native does just as well in the northern hemisphere. Here’s what one Christmas fern looked like today. In places with high deer pressure, grasses, sedges and ferns are the safest bet. Prefers moist, rich, well-drained, acidic soils in part to full shade. It had even reproduced. So, which is it? In some ferns it can take as long as six months for the first fronds (leaves) to appear after sexual fertilization. They thrive in open or dappled shade. Showy flowers in shades of... Understory Level. And, yes, 2 of the plants appear in 2 categories. Adaitum pedatum: Maidenhair Fern. The previous two days the high was 45°F and it rained for a good part of each of those two days, removing almost all of the snowpack. Christmas Fern. Fronds and leaves form a distinctive horseshoe shape. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. For heavy clay soil, mix a 2-inch layer of composted pine bark or other organic material into the top 10 inches before planting to improve drainage. Prefers constant moisture but can stand some drought. Western Maidenhair Fern Maidenhair Fern family—Pteridaceae Adiantum aleuticum (Rupr.) What is your favorite fern book? In late summer, their rich green fronds add life to the forest as other plants fade and drop their leaves. Many ferns are also fairly easy to grow from spores by following the instructions in Cullina’s excellent book. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. Then on the plant name for additional information. She would be delighted to speak to your group about colchicums or other gardening topics. Grow in light to full shade. Have a soil test done to check the pH, and mix ground limestone or crushed oyster shells at recommended rates into the planting area if your soil is acidic. Clump division. Edge division. Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides) is an evergreen fern native to eastern North America from Nova Scotia west to Minnesota … Prefers constant moisture but can stand some drought. This fern works brilliantly with other ferns, hostas and bergenias. Maidenhair and ebony spleenwort ferns can sometimes get scale insects, which can be treated with horticultural oil or insecticidal soaps. Polystichum acrostichoides, commonly denominated Christmas fern, is a perennial, evergreen fern native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to Minnesota and south to Florida and eastern Texas. Many ferns are both cold and heat tolerant — these make the best garden plants for the South. Blechnum spicant: Deer Fern. Cinnamon Fern (Osmunda cinnamomea): This upright, deciduous fern is native throughout South Carolina. western sword fern. The sori (spore cases) are circular on the intermediate wood fern. Dryopteris erythrosora - Autumn Fern. New Jersey is a big and various state, with many diverse and ecosystems displaying a wide variety of native flora. This festive native fern grows in far southeastern Kansas. So I searched online for evergreen ferns, and the name Dryopteris kept coming up. Always follow package instructions for fertilizer rates. Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, www.forestryimages.org, Royal fern, showing brown fertile fronds. If you’ve noticed that the center of the clump is hollow or dead and/or the leaves are smaller than usual, it’s probably time to divide. Sensitive Fern (Onoclea sensibilis): This coarse-textured, deciduous fern grows 24 to 30 inches tall. How they grow and thrive in your garden is what matters most. Many will grow in full shade, in areas where other plants will not grow. Christmas Fern– 1-2′. It grows 12 to 24 inches tall on thin, wiry stems. It is native throughout South Carolina. Native to drier woodland sites, this fern doesn't need the moisture you think of when you... Shrub Level. Ferns. But we do have ferns and boy do we love them my current obsession is with staghorn ferns and how they love the humidity… I keep mine in the shower. You may also divide if you simply want more plants. Evergreen / semi evergreen (51) Flowering (17) Long flowering (1) Low maintenance (29) Makes a good hedge or screen (4) Non poisonous (49) Plants that are native (3) Plants that help filter noise (2) Plants that show resistance to deer and rabbits (10) Plants that will cope with the odd football (6) Resistant to diseases (25) Stylish in … They do get flattened by snow, but they are green. Propagate by edge division. Happy in damp shade but also in dry shade once established. This fern is native throughout South Carolina. Most ferns are slow growing and can take several years to reach their mature size. This evergreen fern is a clump … This will help prevent water from filling the holes and rotting the roots. Autumn Fern – 1 1/2′ – 2′. For the home gardener, division is the most practical method. See the chart below for cultural requirements of specific ferns. It is deciduous and grows in part to full shade in the mountains and piedmont only. California Flora Nursery • 2990 Somers Street • P.O. Prefers constant moisture, although it can withstand some drought. Others, like royal and ostrich ferns, can tower to six feet. Clump division. While most ferns average between one and three feet tall and wide, some, such as resurrection fern, grow only a few inches tall. One page. Copyright © 2002–2020 ColdClimateGardening.com. Cinnamon fern can stand some drought in shade. Evergreen Native Plants Groundcover/Herbaceous Level. It grows 3 to 4 feet tall. A 2- to 3-inch layer of leaves or pine straw, applied in the spring and in the fall, is an excellent mulch for ferns. Adiantum comes from the Greek, adiantos (unwetted), referring to how the leaves shed water. A. scolopendrium is also an evergreen and a native to the British Isles and also very cold winter hardy and rated as H6 by the RHS. Do not put them into a compost pile. PLANTS ARE AWESOME! Propagate by rhizome division. This native fern forms clumps and is ideal for borders, as woodland path edging or to use on shady banks for erosion control. Ferns are easy to grow and many are native (Lady, Log, Hay Scented). Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, www.forestryimages.org, Glossy, evergreen holly fern fronds. It grows 10 to 15 inches tall. Native ferns gather around swamps and streams, spreading with ease through rhizomes and spores. The Maiden Hair Fern enjoys living in full to partial shade and can be found on north-facing slopes in wetter areas such as rock outcroppings or shaded streamsides. Instead of growing from seeds, ferns grow from spores. The native wild form of this easy and very useful evergreen fern. Poultry grit (crushed granite) also works well to improve drainage and should be used in addition to organic material, not as a substitute. It would have been the perfect time to take photos of the ferns, but then last night it snowed and the ferns are somewhat obscured as a result. Grow in light to full shade, with constant moisture, in the mountains and piedmont only. Native to the Coastal Plain, and can be grown throughout South Carolina. Broad Beech Fern (Phegopteris hexagonoptera): This upright growing, deciduous fern grows 12 to 24 inches tall. Prefers constant moisture but can stand some drought. The prothallium produces both male and female sexual organs. Chilean hard fern (Parablechnum cordatum syn. Native Ferns | Portland Nursery. Pretty photos and interesting information! Prefers constant moisture, but can withstand some drought. Japanese Tassel Fern (Polystichum polyblepharum): The dark, evergreen, lacy leaves of this fern grow upright 24 to 36 inches tall. Karen Russ, ©2008 HGIC, Clemson Extension, Upright, vase-shaped form of scaly male fern. Northern or Common Maidenhair (Adiantum pedatum): This fern is also native to South Carolina. Wikimedia Commons, Daderot GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2. Ferns reproduce in a unique way. The easiest way to distinguish these two ferns? Generally, division is done every three to five years, and can be done right after the first frost in the fall (when the leaves have dropped). I know a fern when I see one, and that’s about it. I like “Midwest Ferns” by Steve Chadde; and “Ferns & Allies of the North Woods” by Joe Walewski. Southern Shield Fern. I thought it was about time I taught myself a bit more. Royal Fern (Osmunda regalis): Native throughout South Carolina, this large, coarse textured, deciduous fern can grow 3 to 6 feet tall if given ample water. How do you know when your ferns need dividing? I love soft-green fronds juxtaposed with the stiff blades of ornamental grasses, or the shiny fronds of deer fern (Blechnum spicant) and many shield ferns (Polystichum spp.) When the female organs become fertilized by the male organs, small fern plants begin to grow. Polystichum munitum. To help you navigate this vast array of plants, select the appropriate link below to find native plants for your New Jersey county. Thank you. I had read about the lower pinnae but they seemed to be missing on the sample I took. Ferns grown in wooded areas benefit from the falling leaves and pine needles in the fall. If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at [email protected] or 1-888-656-9988. Evergreen wood fern is the only fully evergreen fern with a lacy (at least twice dissected) appearance, and its fronds are in circular clusters. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Clump division. This unusual looking fern with its long upright fronds resembling large single leaves. Hayscented Fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula): The crushed leaves of this deciduous fern smell like freshly cut hay. Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas Fern) and the Dryopteris species are evergreen but … I actually think it is still out there. Ferns are very sensitive to over fertilizing, so it is best to use a slow release fertilizer, such as Osmocote 14-14-14. Ferns are the staple of many shade gardens. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. When a spore germinates, it becomes a small leaf-like structure called a prothallium. Both are hidden under the snow right now, but one of my resolutions is to be more accurate in my plant namings. At least that is what the labels said when I bought them. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. I thought this was a really great post. Christmas Fern is a hardy native evergreen fern with leathery, glossy, green fronds. Others, like royal and ostrich ferns, can tower to six feet. Quality garden centers carry a variety of ferns, generally in larger sizes than can be obtained through mail order. Korean Rock Fern (Polystichum tsus-simense): Leathery, dark, evergreen leaves grow 10 to 15 inches tall in a vase-shaped form. Sword Fern (Polystichum munitum)- The Sword Fern is one of the hardier evergreen ferns on this list making it low maintenance as well. For identification I think it is best to rely on regional guides. Check plants for pest problems before buying. Marginal wood fern is native to the mountains and piedmont of South Carolina and will grow throughout the state except for along the coast. Native Groundcovers Pussytoes Golden Groundsel. Grow in light to full shade. It’s worth the effort and any good fern book can help. This post focuses on deer resistant ferns and evergreen or semi-evergreen ferns: Ferns that add beauty to your garden. It is a perennial fern native to California and Baja California. Grow in light to full shade, with constant moisture, anywhere in South Carolina except the coast. I have William Cullina’s Native Ferns, Moss & Grasses which illustrates all the terms with photographs, but you can visit Fancy Fronds Nursery’s glossary for a quick review. Southern Shield Fern (Thelypteris kunthii): This deciduous fern has light green fronds that grow 24 to 36 inches tall. Woodwardia fimbriata. Grow in light to full shade. All ferns prefer well-drained soil high in organic matter. Millie Davenport, ©2008 HGIC, Clemson Extension, Korean rock fern growing in the Atlanta Botanical Garden. ferns, Will grow throughout South Carolina. Thank you. Grow in light to full shade. Mountain Mist Nursery Christmas Fern. Grows 3' to 4' high. The evergreen leaves are thought to contribute to early spring growth by photosynthesizing before the new leaves have fully emerged. On my strolls over the years I have noticed that there are two ferns that remain evergreen in our woods during the winter. Clump division. Rhizome division. Japanese Painted Fern (Athyriumniponicum ‘Pictum’): The deciduous fronds of this fern are a mix of silvery-gray, green and burgundy on dark purple stems. Paris (a-dee-AN-tum al-oot-IH-kum) Names: Adiantum aleuticum is also known as A. pedatum var. Complete organic fertilizers also work very well. They’re spore cases, full of many spores. identify, as the sori (pockets of spores) are situated on the pinnae’s (leaflets) margins = marginalis. The mail order sources listed below stock many hard-to-find ferns. But I appreciate their beauty! I hope this helps. In woodlands, they often appear as "early-colonizers" in areas that have been over-browsed by deer. Slugs will occasionally eat the young fronds of variegated shield, deer, hayscented or southern shield ferns. Fine textured ferns contrast nicely with the large leaves of hostas, the shiny leaves of hellebores and the colorful leaves of heucheras. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug – Compiled Wisdom, short glandular hairs, visible with a good hand lens, sori (spore cases) are circular on the intermediate wood fern, Lily-Of-The-Valley, Dressed Up For A Party, How To Have Fragrant Lily-Of-The-Valley In The Middle Of The Winter, The Galanthus Gala: Where Snowdrop Addicts Get Their Fix, How To Create And Maintain Trails In Your Woods, How to Pull Your Potted Plants Through the Winter. Daniel J. Layton Creative Commons License 3.0, Christmas fern in late fall. I will have to go out and see if it is green. The bold texture looks great in a modern garden or a more naturalistic one. They provide a unifying element to the woodland garden, weaving their green fronds over the forest floor. Edge division. I think those sori are circular but I have trouble identifying ferns even with three books on the subject. They grow in light to full shade, and will grow throughout South Carolina. Plant in sun to full shade, with constant moisture. It grows 24 to 36 inches tall. Ostrich Fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris): While ostrich fern can grow 4 to 6 feet tall in the wild, it is generally shorter in gardens. giant chain fern. Rhizome division. Grows 18" to 24" high and can grow in all areas. A very drought-tolerant fern, it is often found in the wild growing on rock walls and slopes. Fertilizing should be done in spring, just after new growth has begun. Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, www.forestryimages.org, Sensitive fern. If winter is slumber and spring is birth, and summer is life, then autumn rounds out to be reflection. Mother Earth just closed up the drapes on another year and it’s time to reflect on what’s come before. Semi-evergreen native to coastal areas but will grow in all. Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides) Christmas ferns are hardy in USDA … I was sad to lose it. Grow in light to full shade anywhere in South Carolina except for along the coast. Do not fertilize fall transplants. Native ferns offer a wide diversity of sizes, growth habits, forms, and niches for gardens. Asplenium scolopendrium (Hart's Tongue fern) This is another Asplenium but a very different and again unusual one. Native Ferns. Photo by Joey Williamson, ©2008 HGIC, Clemson Extension, Northern or common maidenhair fern. Although it prefers constant moisture, lady fern can stand some drought. According to Missouri Botanical Garden, it “…typically grows in a fountain-like clump to 2′ tall and features leathery, lance-shaped, with evergreen (green at Christmas time as the common name suggests) fronds.”If you love boston ferns but want something … Clump division. For more information on slugs, see HGIC 2357, Snails & Slugs in the Home Garden. Autumn Fern (Dryopteris erythrosora): The new spring leaves of this evergreen fern are coppery-pink in spring, turn green in summer and rusty-brown in fall. Dwarf evergreen ferns with a coppery bronze color on the young fronds which mature to deep green. Fronds grow 18 to 30 inches tall. It will grow throughout South Carolina. There are three different methods for dividing ferns. In addition to Cullina’s book, my go-to books for cultivating ferns are “The Encyclopedia of Garden Ferns’ by Sue Olsen; “Ferns” by Olsen and Richie Steffen; “Ferns For American Gardens” by John Mickel; and “Fern Growers Manual” by Hoshizaki and Moran. Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, www.forestryimages.org, Lady fern frond. Edge division. Grows better on alkaline to neutral soils.