Portia’s emotional appeal focuses on making Brutus feel guilty for leaving her out and persuading him that she is strong enough to keep his secret. Explanatory Notes for Act 2, Scene 4 From Julius Caesar.Ed. Highly intelligent, she cannot be fobbed off by Brutus’s excuses, as she knows him too well. The students were baffled until Hicks gave the example that the man would not [...]. Post jobs, find pros, and collaborate commission-free in our professional marketplace. Many businessmen, historians, military personal, etc all have created lists of who they believe to be great leaders. Greece. Other than these two women, the cast is composed entirely of 30 male characters. wherefore rise you now? People also have control of their own lives and the ability to make decisions, affecting them and others. Brutus, my lord! Other than these two women, the cast is composed entirely of 30 male characters. Caesar planned to [...], As Brutus draws his blade preparing to stab Caesar, Caesar watches him with sunken eyes as his best friend betrays him. Explanatory Notes for Act 2, Scene 4 From Julius Caesar.Ed. Samuel Thurber. Portia is the daughter of Cato and the wife of Brutus. (Shakespeare.mit.edu). She had to keep these worries to herself. OPTIONS: Show cue speeches • Show full speeches # Act, Scene, Line (Click to see in context) Speech text: 1. There were only two women in the play, and Portia was the one who proved strength over most of the male characters, both physically and mentally. Portia’s Julius Caesar, written by Kaitlyn Riordan and presented by Hart House Theatre, takes a familiar story from Shakespeare and looks at in a new light. Shakespeare uses characters in this play to [...], What does a memory represent? Explore how 'Portia appeals to Brutus' from Act 2 Scene 1 of Shakespeare's play, with annotated text, galleries and videos of the scene in performance. Portia’s Julius Caesar runs until September 3rd in Withrow Park (between Logan Ave. and Carlaw Ave.) Shows run Tuesday to Sunday at 7:30pm; Tickets are PWYC, cash only, with a recommended donation of $20; Tickets can be purchased at the box office prior to the show or online here; Chairs and blankets are available to rent for the performance ; Information on accessibility and … Samuel Thurber. 2. Portia’s loyalty to her husband is proven over and over throughout the play. Portia doesn’t get a bunch of stage time, but she is a force to be reckoned with in this brief appearance. Get your own essay from professional writers. Brutus, my lord! If you need help faster you can always use our custom writing service. Portia character sketch. Throughout William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, Portia Catonis, Brutus’s wife, acts as a supporting character who also brings conflict into the side plot of their marriage. He then leaves to seek a place from which he can speak to Caesar. These roles are important factors in the foreshadowing and development in the play. ____ ACT II Scene 4 Nearly an hour has passed since the conspirators entered Caesar's house to "taste some wine" with him; and the time draws on when they are to escort him to the senate-house. Since Brutus’ wife, Portia, was the daughter of the successful leader Cato, she was a very powerful Roman. They had many more privileges at that time than most women because they were the wives of great noble Romans, and of course Calpurnia was the wife of the leader Julius Caesar. Portia Portia is the daughter of Cato and the wife of Brutus. II,1,864. Portia was the only wife in the play who knew about the plot to kill Caesar. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. A big idea in Williams Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar is the idea of betrayal. She not only stands up to Brutus, but also inflicts self-harm and commits suicide, which mark her life. Our editors will help you fix any mistakes and get an A+! All rights reserved. There were only two women in the play, and Portia was the one who proved strength over most of the male characters, both physically and mentally. Portia was born between 73 BC and 64 BC and loved philosophy and had an obvious understanding of courage (Wikipedia.org). She addresses her husband Brutus with familiarity and passion, making room for some raw and powerful choices. ____ ACT IV Scene 3 2. noted: set a mark or stigma upon him; disgraced him. By reading Shakespeare’s play, it is seems as if Portia died from grief. Portia shows more self-inflicting pain than any other character. (Hicks). The government of Rome tells… Manipulation, reputation, and power are all very [...], Gaius Julius Augustus Germanicus Caesar was born on July 12 or July 13, 100 BCE, to the Praetor Gaius Julius Caesar, who controlled parts of Asia. Highly intelligent, she cannot be fobbed off by Brutus’s excuses, as she knows him too well. She not only stands up to Brutus, but also inflicts self-harm and commits suicide, which mark her life. Portia’s Julius Caesar at Hart House is an ambitious and honourable piece that tackles a feminist retelling of Shakespeare’s political tragedy Julius Caesar.Originally mounted this past August in Withrow Park by Shakespeare in the Ruff, director Eva Barrie returns to this text with a new cast and mostly-new crew to mount an ambitious rendition of the show. An effective leader must be a communicator, a planner, confident, yet humble, knowledgeable, and much more. There were only two women in the play, and Portia was the one who proved strength over most of the male characters, both physically and mentally. Please consider making a small donation to help keep this site free. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. She even stabs herself in the thigh to illustrate the strength of her commitment to him, a drastic act revealing Portia’s understanding that she must go to an extreme to get her own husband to listen to her. Both characters foreshadowed what was to come in the future and had a positive effect on the play. Other than these two women, the cast is composed entirely of 30 male characters. Portia was the wife of Brutus in the time of Julius Caesar. Portia (Click the character infographic to download.) In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, both Calpurnia and Portia are loving wives.Both adore their husbands. The two women were Portia, the wife of Brutus, and Calpurnia, the wife of Julius Caesar. Montée pour l'ouverture du Globe Theatre à Londres, elle relate la conspiration contre Jules César, son assassinat et ses conséquences. Read Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, Act 2, scene 1 for free from the Folger Shakespeare Library! Didn't find the paper that you were looking for? Previous Next . 11 oct. 2019 - Deborah Kerr as Portia in "Julius Caesar" (1953). Mark Antony is a character in the play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare. Portia … Read Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, Act 2, scene 4 for free from the Folger Shakespeare Library! Julius Caesar Characters & Descriptions . Portia inquires if he knows of any plans to harm Caesar, and he answers only that he fears what may happen to Caesar. He was truly an effective leader. Brutus. She doesn't get a whole lot of stage time but we think she's an interesting figure, especially when it comes to the play's concern with gender dynamics. Shakespeare took the expression "condemned and noted" directly from Plutarch. This is her effort to not only prove her pain can be hidden, but she can also keep a secret. He called his young servant. We can create an original paper just for you! Full text, summaries, illustrations, guides for reading, and more. Enter PORTIA Portia. Portia only appears in the entire play a few times, but her role plays a huge significance. Calpurnia serves as a foil for Caesar when he is deciding whether to go to the Senate. Portia is Brutus' devoted wife. II,1,864. II,1,860 (stage directions). When civil war breaks out and she realizes the strength of Brutus’s enemy, she commits suicide. The Tragedy of Julius Caesar shows the struggle of power and democracy in the area where real government and democracy came in fruition. Previous page Question 11 Next page Question 13 Popular pages: Julius Caesar She addresses her husband Brutus with familiarity and passion, making room for some raw and powerful choices. 2. Contemporary and modern historians also argue whether she actually swallowed hot coals or died of carbon monoxide poisoning (Wikipedia.org). And a few have done the opposite. II,1,885. John D. Hicks, of Oxford University, once asked his students: What would a man do without a memory? She is worried about him and his intentions, and when Brutus leaves for the Capitol intent on killing Caesar, she is a nervous wreck. Both characters foreshadowed what was to come in the future and had a positive effect on the play. Définitions de Portia_(Julius_Caesar), synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de Portia_(Julius_Caesar), dictionnaire analogique de Portia_(Julius_Caesar) (anglais) Portia has seen the conspirators leaving the house and is worried about Brutus' behaviour. He called his young servant. Throughout William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, Portia Catonis, Brutus’s wife, acts as a supporting character who also brings conflict into the side plot of their marriage. She’s torn before Caesar’s murder, because she knew about the murder plot. She is also affectionate toward Brutus and is extremely worried about the well-being of Brutus when he leaves for the Capitol on the day the murder of Julius Caesar was to take place. In this lesson, we will look at a few of her quotes and analyze her character. One man appears on more than one of those list: Julius Caesar. Enter Portia from Julius Caesar. She could keep this secret from her husband, Brutus (Wikipedia.org). 2. Brutus is a completely different man when in the public eye. Brutus divorced his first wife, Claudia Pulchra, to marry Portia. She holds her tongue for no-one, and her determination and conviction make this a strong audition piece. Many recent productions of Shakespeare’s plays have cast women in men’s roles. ____ ACT II Scene 4 Nearly an hour has passed since the conspirators entered Caesar's house to "taste some wine" with him; and the time draws on when they are to escort him to the senate-house. She used this example to prove she could endure physical and emotional pain, while keeping her secrets to herself. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Julius Caesar and what it means. Full text, summaries, illustrations, guides for reading, and more. In this lesson, we will look at a few of her quotes and analyze her character. II,1,864. What does it mean to the 7.7 billion individuals that live on Earth today (Current World Population)? Découvrez Julius Caesar, Portia's Madness de Edoardo Fainello sur Amazon Music. Someone you consider so … Portia Arthur (born 1990), Ghanaian author, writer and reporter; Porcia Catonis, the wife of Roman senator Marcus Junius Brutus (fictionalized as a character in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar as "Portia") Portia Dawson, American actress; Portia de Rossi or Portia DeGeneres, Australian-born actress; Portia Doubleday, American actress Most marriages were for political reasons and arranged, but Portia and Brutus married for love. Being the oldest man alive in the family, Julius became head of [...], Julius Caesar is a historical figure known for his political ambition, as well as the spotlight thrust upon him thanks to Williams Shakespeare's play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar. In William Shakespeare’s play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, the character Portia, second wife to Brutus, seemed to be one of the most burdened with secrets. The Julius Caesar quotes below are all either spoken by Portia or refer to Portia. She was torn the day of Caesar’s assassination, knowing her husband was involved, but could not be comforted. There were only two women in the play, and Portia was the one who proved strength over most of the male characters, both physically and mentally. She tries to get him to tell her what is happening. Next: Julius Caesar, Act 5, Scene 1 Explanatory Notes for Act 4, Scene 3 From Julius Caesar.Ed. Named one of the top shows of 2018 by the Toronto Star after its summer premiere, Portia’s Julius Caesar is an unapologetically feminist take on Shakespeare’s classic account of political upheaval. Portia was born […] Calpurnia, Julius Caesar’s wife, was a different personality than Portia, who was married to Brutus. Enter Portia from Julius Caesar. Brutus was the one who killed Caesar, and Portia suspected a plot to assasinate Caesar. For Hire . In William Shakespeare’s play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, the character Portia, second wife to Brutus, seemed to be one of the most burdened with secrets. Both women beg their husbands on bended knee to honor their wishes. 16 students ordered this very topic and got original papers. For Hire . This symbolizes her strength and loyalty. In The Tragedy of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, multiple characters experience a deadly fate, but it is not completely unavoidable. Samuel Thurber. Portia character sketch. Nor for yours neither. She worries about her and sends messengers to mahusbanke sure he’s still alive (Shakespeare.mit.edu). He was born into privilege in [...], Fate is inevitable, unavoidable, and ultimately ends in death. Brutus replies blaming himself for being absent during Portia’s grief, blaming himself for her suicide. In the play “Julius Caesar” written by William Shakespeare the characters Calphurnia and Portia were the only main characters who were female. Ancient Rome, Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Memory, Museum, War, World War 2, Idea of Betrayal in Williams Shakespeare’s Play Julius Caesar, Concept of Fate in the Tragedy of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, The Importance of Preserving History through Primary Sources. This is "Rachel Lin | Portia (Julius Caesar)" by Rachel L on Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people who love them. Portia’s emotional appeal focuses on making Brutus feel guilty for leaving her out and persuading him that she is strong enough to keep his secret. Écoutez de la musique en streaming sans publicité ou achetez des CDs et MP3 maintenant sur Amazon.fr. When Brutus refuses to tell her secrets saying she would not be strong enough to handle such things, Portia stabs herself in the leg. Portia inquires if he knows of any plans to harm Caesar, and he answers only that he fears what may happen to Caesar. OPTIONS: Hide cue speeches • Show full speeches (no cues) • Show truncated speeches (no cues) # Act, Scene, Line (Click to see in context) Speech text : 1. This example has been uploaded by a student. Many recent productions of Shakespeare’s plays have cast women in men’s roles. Next: Julius Caesar, Act 5, Scene 1 Explanatory Notes for Act 4, Scene 3 From Julius Caesar.Ed. Portia’s Julius Caesar at Hart House is an ambitious and honourable piece that tackles a feminist retelling of Shakespeare’s political tragedy Julius Caesar.Originally mounted this past August in Withrow Park by Shakespeare in the Ruff, director Eva Barrie returns to this text with a new cast and mostly-new crew to mount an ambitious rendition of the show. Enter PORTIA Portia. By William Shakespeare. II,1,860 (stage directions). Julius Caesar in Modern English: Act 2, Scene 1: Brutus sat in his living room, thinking things over. It was late. Contemporary historians believe she killed herself after hearing Brutus died following the second battle of Philippi and modern believe she may have died from the plague (Wikipedia.org). She is proud of both of these, and is the definition of a stoic Roman woman. Brutus mentions Portia, during his conversation with Cassius as they prepare for their final battle. Portia’s Julius Caesar gives Shakespeare’s women a voice. To … Julius Caesar: Éditeur Edward Blount, William et Isaac Jaggard Lieu de parution Londres Date de parution 1623 (Premier Quarto) Date de création septembre 1599 Lieu de création Globe Theatre: Jules César (Julius Caesar) est une tragédie de William Shakespeare, probablement écrite en 1599 et publiée pour la première fois en 1623. Portia Arthur (born 1990), Ghanaian author, writer and reporter; Porcia Catonis, the wife of Roman senator Marcus Junius Brutus (fictionalized as a character in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar as "Portia") Portia Dawson, American actress; Portia de Rossi or Portia DeGeneres, Australian-born actress; Portia Doubleday, American actress Portia has seen the conspirators leaving the house and is worried about Brutus' behaviour. Speeches (Lines) for Portia in "Julius Caesar" Total: 16. print/save view. Speeches (Lines) for Portia in "Julius Caesar" Total: 16. print/save view. To prove her loyalty to silence, she inflicted a wound upon her thigh with a barber’s knife. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Introduction-Portia the loyal wife of Brutus has many redeeming factors..She is the daughter of Cato and is highly intelligent. It was late. But you can one from professional essay writers. In William Shakespeare’s play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, the character Portia, second wife to Brutus, seemed to be one of the most burdened with secrets. In the play “Julius Caesar” written by William Shakespeare the characters Calphurnia and Portia were the only main characters who were female. In the play “Julius Caesar” written by William Shakespeare the characters Calphurnia and Portia were the only main characters who were female. Friendship, loyalty, and betrayal amidst political upheaval are the timeless concepts probed in William Shakespeare’s tragedy, Julius Caesar. She is also affectionate toward Brutus and is extremely worried about the well-being of Brutus when he leaves for the Capitol on the day the murder of Julius Caesar was to take place. wherefore rise you now? Portia’s Julius Caesar, written by Kaitlyn Riordan and presented by Hart House Theatre, takes a familiar story from Shakespeare and looks at in a new light. During this conversation, Brutus tells Cassius to get him bowl of wine, so he can bury all unkindness or unwanted feelings. Many historians argue about the exact timing of Portia’s suicide. Her loyalty to Brutus may have also been the death of her. She insists on sharing all that she can of his life. Read Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, Act 2, scene 1 for free from the Folger Shakespeare Library! In the play Julius caesar by William Shakespeare roles of women were briefly included. Speeches (Lines) for Portia in "Julius Caesar" Total: 16. print/save view. Both characters foreshadowed what was to come in the future and had a positive effect on the play. And a few have done the opposite. Portia represents a woman who sees herself as strong as a man and tries to prove her strength throughout the play, (Wikipedia.org). She holds her tongue for no-one, and her determination and conviction make this a strong audition piece. Step 1: Understand the Play. Portia’s Julius Caesar gives Shakespeare’s women a voice. She left the wound untreated for over a day (Wikipedia.org). In William Shakespeare’s play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, the character Portia, second wife to Brutus, seemed to be one of the most burdened with secrets. Brutus was the one who killed Caesar, and Portia suspected a plot to assasinate Caesar. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one: ). Portia is dead when explaining to Cassius how Portia was stronger than any man, but she was now dead from swallowing the hot coals. Orders:23 When Julius became 16 years old, his father died. About “Julius Caesar Act 2 Scene 4” Worried sick about Brutus, Portia imagines she hears a brawl at the Capitol and sends the servant Lucius to check on her husband. She has so much anxiety the day of Caesar’s assissination, she faints. Explore how 'Portia appeals to Brutus' from Act 2 Scene 1 of Shakespeare's play, with annotated text, galleries and videos of the scene in performance. Brutus shows his own conflicting feelings about his role in Caesar’s death and his guilt for also contributing to Portia’s suicide (Shakespeare.mit.edu/julius_caesar). Tough Girl Portia Have you ever had to convince someone to confide in you? The Roman Empire, which is in itself tells a very interesting story, as the government of Rome was a very susceptible, always fluctuating, sort of thing. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. II,1,860. Overview Synopsis Characters Scenes Full Play Reviews Documents. We have experts for any subject. We will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours. All's Well That Ends Well Antony & Cleopatra As You Like It Comedy of Errors Coriolanus Cymbeline Double Falsehood Edward 3 Hamlet Henry 4.1 Henry 4.2 Henry 5 Henry 6.1 Henry 6.2 Henry 6.3 Henry 8 Julius Caesar King John King Lear King Richard 2 Love's Labour's Lost Macbeth Measure for Measure Merchant of Venice Merry Wives of Windsor Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing … Portia’s role in the play represents the deep pain and sorrow inside of Brutus’s conscious by the end of the play, (Shakespeare.mit.edu). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. This is "Rachel Lin | Portia (Julius Caesar)" by Rachel L on Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people who love them. 2020 © StudyDriver.com - Big database of free essay examples for students at all levels. Portia, being a woman, was not trusted to keep the plot to kill Caesar silent. Brutus’s mother, Servilia, was jealous of Brutus’s love for Portia (Wikipedia.org). Portia, what mean you? Post jobs, find pros, and collaborate commission-free in our professional marketplace. In Act 4: Scene 3: Brutus’s tent, Cassius asks Brutus during their emotional conversation, how Portia died, Of what illness? Portia is one of only two female characters in William Shakespeare’s ‘Julius Caesar’. She is proud of both of these, and is the definition of a stoic Roman woman. He was one of Caesar’s closest friends and had a reputation for being sporty and carefree. Portia sends Lucius to give her greetings to Brutus and to tell him that she is in good spirits, and then to report back immediately to her. Portia sends Lucius to give her greetings to Brutus and to tell him that she is in good spirits, and then to report back immediately to her. Portia was the wife of Brutus in the time of Julius Caesar. Introduction-Portia the loyal wife of Brutus has many redeeming factors..She is the daughter of Cato and is highly intelligent. Définitions de portia julius caesar, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de portia julius caesar, dictionnaire analogique de portia julius caesar (anglais) (Shakespeare.mit.edu/julius_caesar). Named one of the top shows of 2018 by the Toronto Star after its summer premiere, Portia’s Julius Caesar is an unapologetically feminist take on Shakespeare’s classic account of political upheaval. Portia’s Julius Caesar runs until September 3rd in Withrow Park (between Logan Ave. and Carlaw Ave.) Shows run Tuesday to Sunday at 7:30pm; Tickets are PWYC, cash only, with a recommended donation of $20; Tickets can be purchased at the box office prior to the show or online here; Chairs and blankets are available to rent for the performance ; Information on accessibility and … She may have been the powerful one who could have prevented Caesar’s assassination, if she had told someone or warned Caesar. She shows Brutus that he can trust her when she says "I have made strong constancy, giving myself a voluntary wound Here in the thigh. There is not much documentation on the childhood of Julius Caesar. You've ungently, Brutus, Stole from my bed: and yesternight, at supper,... 3. Portia doesn’t get a bunch of stage time, but she is a force to be reckoned with in this brief appearance. Brutus acts completely different when he speaks to Cassius in private. A summary of Part X (Section8) in William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Portia, what mean you? Samuel Thurber. Portia in Julius Caesar. She even stabs herself in the thigh to illustrate the strength of her commitment to him, a drastic act revealing Portia’s understanding that she must go to an extreme to get her own husband to listen to her. Shakespeare uses the two women: Portia and Calphurnia to show the audience the other side(s) of Brutus and Caesars characters and as R. Moore says in his article Women in Julius Caesar “They also provide elements of love and loyalty in a play that is largely concerned with death and intrigue. Every character in this play intertwines as a soap opera would. Brutus says, No man bears sorrow better. 16 students ordered this very topic and got original papers. Portia, the husband of Brutus, demonstrates trustworthiness, loyalty, and observance in Julius Caesar. ____ ACT IV Scene 3 2. noted: set a mark or stigma upon him; disgraced him. Julius Caesar was born on July 13, 100 B.C. Brutus then explains that when Portia’s servants were not around, she killed herself by swallowing hot coals. Brutus, my lord! Jules César (Julius Caesar) est une tragédie de William Shakespeare, probablement écrite en 1599 et publiée pour la première fois en 1623. All's Well That Ends Well Antony & Cleopatra As You Like It Comedy of Errors Coriolanus Cymbeline Double Falsehood Edward 3 Hamlet Henry 4.1 Henry 4.2 Henry 5 Henry 6.1 Henry 6.2 Henry 6.3 Henry 8 Julius Caesar King John King Lear King Richard 2 Love's Labour's Lost Macbeth Measure for Measure Merchant of Venice Merry Wives of Windsor Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing … About “Julius Caesar Act 2 Scene 4” Worried sick about Brutus, Portia imagines she hears a brawl at the Capitol and sends the servant Lucius to check on her husband. His mother was a woman named Aurelia Cotta. She tries to get him to tell her what is happening. Caesar gasps in horror as the blade begins to slash into his torso. Step 1: Understand the Play. Shakespeare uses the two women: Portia and Calphurnia to show the audience the other side(s) of Brutus and Caesars characters and as R. Moore says in his article Women in Julius Caesar “They also provide elements of love and loyalty in a play that is largely concerned with death and intrigue. Portia and Calpurnia in the play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare were the wives of Brutus and Caesar. Filled with searing rhetoric and thrilling intrigue, the story exposes the inner regions and outer manifestations of the places where personal ambition and the ideals of noble citizenry diverge, as Brutus and Marc Antony make their stands. Men are usually seen as the violent characters in the play. Julius Caesar in Modern English: Act 2, Scene 1: Brutus sat in his living room, thinking things over. La pièce s'ouvre avec deux tribuns, Flavius et Murellus, découvrant que le peuple de Rome célèbre le retour victorieux de Jules César, vainqueur de la Guerre civil… Portia Quotes in Julius Caesar. OPTIONS: Hide cue speeches • Show full speeches (no cues) • Show truncated speeches (no cues) # Act, Scene, Line (Click to see in context) Speech text : 1. Feeling the pain of her wounded leg in silence. He then leaves to seek a place from which he can speak to Caesar. Brutus. Although she’s dead by Chapter IV, Portia still plays a huge part in this chapter, as far as showing Brutus’s character. Shakespeare took the expression "condemned and noted" directly from Plutarch. Full text, summaries, illustrations, guides for reading, and more. Portia is one of only two female characters in William Shakespeare's 'Julius Caesar'. Scansion Julius Caesar - Context Mostly iambic pentameter Portia is calculated - this is not just some spontaneous combustion, it is a premeditated, preplanned confrontation Tri-syllables “yet I insisted, yet you answer’d not” I made a purposeful choice to not use the perfect