Software verification is often the last defense against disasters caused by faulty software development. ... Testability. I In extreme cases a lack of testability may hinder testing parts of the software or software requirements at all. Everyone thinks that quality will improve if you perform more tests. Review your networking options and choose ... Stay on top of the latest news, analysis and expert advice from this year's re:Invent conference. Separation of concerns is a best practice for software design and implementation, but not for software analysis, which needs a holis-tic view of software. As stated by Binder [6] and Freedman [7] “a Testable Software is one that can be tested easily, systematically and externally at the user interface level without any ad-hoc measure”. However, one important factor is often overlooked – software testability… This article will give you a list of Software Quality attributes in quality assurance and quality control. In the world of software architecture there are many “-ilities” you must take into consideration with every project. S Developers used to think it was untouchable, but that's not the case. The programs must display the functional, structural, code simplicity so that programs are easier to test. Σ Design for Testability. Software is only testable through the user interface, and there are no tracing systems or logs to identify what went wrong during a failed test. These modules are then integrated to make the final Portability These characteristics are further decomposed into subcharacteristicsas shown in the following table, adapted from Chapter 17 ofSoftware Testing and Quality Assurance: Theory andPracticeby Naik and Tripathy, 2008. Based on this measure, a testability hierarchy has been proposed.[2][3]. ( {\displaystyle O_{k}} Copyright 2019 - 2020, TechTarget Is it easy to check and test the product? High testability means it is easy to find and isolate faults as part of your team's regular testing process. The problem with this assumption is that the emphasis is on selecting input data, and not on determining whether the given program is easily testable or not. ∉ , = But software testability is a tall order, and it can also be an expensive one. In software, testability refers to the degree that any module, requirements, subsystem or other component of your architecture can be verified as satisfactory or not. {\displaystyle F_{S}:I\to O} (IEEE Std 610.12) between software testing and software testability. For example, Google's ReCAPTCHA, without having any metadata about the images is not a testable system. Prioritizing them is necessary because the client will optimistically ask that you do all of them. Given this, it is somewhat surprising that many folks working in Software don't consider the idea of testability. While soft-ware testing aims to assess the quality of software produced, software testability is not concerned with whether the software is producing correct or incorrect results [3]. τ CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SOFTWARE While developing any kind of software product, the first question in any ... Testability : Testing the software should be easy. {\displaystyle O_{t}} However, this is incorrect. τ The characteristics of Software Contracts described above are part of the specification of a class, not its implementation. testability research issue should lay more emphasis on the interaction between software and testing criterion. ISO/IEC 9126defines software quality as a structured set of individual quality characteristics. Software testability is a software characteristic that refers to the ease with which some formal or informal testing criteria can be satisfied. -Traceability: the product logs actions at appropriate levels and in usable format. passes, else the system fails the test input. Testing can achieve two main Software functional quality reflects how well it complies with or conforms to a given design, based on functional requirements or specifications. Is it easy to check and test the product? Sign-up now. ) Usually, testing costs on the large scales of 50% during software system development phase. Understandability: The degree to which the component under test is documented or self-explaining. There are varying metrics that can be applied to this measurement. Cookie Preferences Therefore, obviously without algebraic consistency, no such function can be found, and therefore, the specification cease to be termed as testable. Even though testability can not be measured directly (such as software size) it should be considered an intrinsic property of a software artifact because it is highly correlated with other key software qualities such as encapsulation, coupling, cohesion, and redundancy. It seems that testers think that the most important testability issue is to have an API, so they can exercises it in automation scripts. , ISO/IEC 25010 (2011) refines this model with two new top-levelcategories particularly related to internet technolo… Software testability analysis helps in quantifying testability value. In order to link the testability with the difficulty to find potential faults in a system (if they exist) by testing it, a relevant measure to assess the testability is how many test cases are needed in each case to form a complete test suite (i.e. Therefore, the ideal software generates the tuple , Remarkably, ISO 9126 does not provide a consensual set of measures for estimating maintainability on the basis of a system’s source code. Granted, not all companies are on board, but since software is now a key competitive differentiator, you're either on the testability train or you're on the tracks. From the domain of distributed real-time systems we know that the architecture (high-level design) of a software system can be a main factor of testability. Voas But testing problems need not be inevitable. A proliferation of software reliability models have emerged as people try to understand the characteristics of how and why software fails, and try to quantify software reliability. This aids in testability because the method itself can be the only transformation for a given input into a specific output. It is the state of software artifact, which decides the difficulty level for carrying out testing activities on that artifact. The GitHub master branch is no more. Then, we'll explain what architects can do to move toward testability. Please check the box if you want to proceed. Share on. a test suite such that, if it is applied to the implementation under test, then we collect enough information to precisely determine whether the system is correct or incorrect according to some specification), a testability hierarchy with the following testability classes has been proposed:[2] Measuring Software Testability Modulo Test Quality. Testability is a software quality characteristic that is of major relevance for test costs and software dependability. Σ They found that some Σ This function "V" is known as the verification function for the system with input I. 5 key software testability characteristics. Software testability and related attributes A software system is testable if it gives up (exposes) its faults easily to the tester. ∈ V a test suite such that, after applying all test cases to the system, collected outputs will let us unambiguously determine whether the system is correct or not according to some specification). To predict and improve software testability, a large number of techniques and metrics have been proposed by both practitioners and researchers in the last several decades. Find a point where you can add the most testability for the least price and get to work. 1. One of the things that I like about testability is that it is a part of quality characteristics. Add specifics for your context, and transform the list to your own. Class I: there exists a finite complete test suite. Don't sweat the details with microservices. Testability software has been defined by ISO. What should the core abstractions be? Software validation generally refers to the process of showing that software is computing an expected function. A testable architecture should clearly show integration points between swappable components that run in isolation. We'll send you an email containing your password. Software testability is the degree to which a software system or a unit under test supports its own testing. τ Heterogeneity: The degree to which the use of diverse technologies requires to use diverse test methods and tools in parallel. Other work adds extra characteristics like understandability, traceability and test-support capability [18] to the testability notion. . Data center backup processes take a week to test, during which there is no environment available for regular testing. Easy to operate: High quality software can be tested in a better manner. Let’s assume the following about software development. Over 200 models have been developed since the early 1970s, but how to quantify software reliability still remains largely unsolved. Description how to recognize characteristics of the ADA in an artifact In this paper, we address the following problem: Software testability: | |Software testability| is the degree to which a software artifact (i.e. Still, testability is not an explicit focus in today‟s industrial software development projects. How should they interact with each other? S : t or {\displaystyle \Sigma } (software) But software testability is a tall order, and it can also be an expensive one. This is one of the main drivers behind the switch to test automation. Testability of Software Components 3 output data characteristics and states of the component is small. . Software testability is the degree to which a software artifact (i.e. Automatability: The degree to which it is possible to automate testing of the component under test. on the testability of the software. Testability: Testability is a characteristic that indicates whether a system or component can accurately determine its status (operation, failure, or performance degradation) and isolate its internal failure in a … However, testability has always been an elusive, context-sensitive concept and its correct measurement is a difficult exercise [5]. k ; The practical feasibility of observing a reproducible series of such counterexamples if they do exist. {\displaystyle \tau } No problem! Software Reliability Models. Software testability analyses can exposure the weakness of the software testability and guide the design for software testability. This post covers part two of my 2010 talk on testability. τ which is the input-output set It is used to validate the software product. There are a couple ways to connect the disparate pieces of a multi-cloud architecture. Approaches of Software Testing - Tutorial to learn Approaches of Software Testing in simple, easy and step by step way with syntax, examples and notes. The inclusion into Class I does not require the simplicity of the assumed computation model, as some testing cases involving implementations written in any programming language, and testing implementations defined as machines depending on continuous magnitudes, have been proved to be in Class I. If the implementation under test must be a deterministic finite-state machine failing the specification for a single trace (and its continuations), and its number of states is unknown, then it only belongs to classes from Class III on. Now, take a test input In software, testability refers to the degree that any module, requirements, subsystem or other component of your architecture can be verified as satisfactory or not. If the testability of the software artifact is high, then finding faults in the system (if it has any) by means of testing is easier. Therefore, it is of imperative importance to figure out : can we or can we not create a function that effectively translates into the notion of the set indicator function for the specification set To predict and improve software testability, a … There will be a million reasons why this seems impossible. This enables them recreate failures, isolate them and find the proper fix. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "A General Testability Theory: Classes, properties, complexity, and testing reductions", Improving testability of object-oriented systems, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Software_testability&oldid=971218068, Articles lacking in-text citations from September 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Properties of the software itself (such as size, complexity and testability), Properties of the development- and testing processes, Qualification and motivation of the persons involved in the test process. This classification can be achieved by noticing that, to be testable, for a functionality of the system under test "S", which takes input "I", a computable functional predicate "V" must exists such that Falsifiability or defeasibility, which means that counterexamples to the hypothesis are logically possible. k ISO9126 Software Quality Characteristics and their role in Software Quality Assurance. In this article you will have a look at the capabilities of the HttpClient component and also some hands-on examples. Software testability is not a characteristic of source code artifacts alone. quantitative (a requirement like "fast response time" can not be, verification/verifiable in practice (a test is feasible not only in theory but also in practice with limited resources). generates output AWS re:Invent 2020 underscores push toward cloud in pandemic, Multi-cloud networking -- how to choose the right path, Why GitHub renamed its master branch to main, An Apache Commons FileUpload example and the HttpClient, 10 microservices quiz questions to test your knowledge. Do Not Sell My Personal Info. Changes to the hardware, operating system, software dependencies, and organizational business rules and policies are handled in adaptive maintenance. tions. Why is unit testing important for developers? Adaptive maintenance includes the environmental changes where your software is living. The test environment is such a scaled-down version of production that it cannot realistically simulate real workloads. A testable architecture should clearly show integration points between swappable components that run in isolation. Separation of concerns. Nowadays software testability analyses include three facets: test cost analysis, sensitivity analysis and testable characteristics analysis. Testability is (1) the degree that characteristics that provide for testing exist, and (2) the degree to which economically feasible tests can be devised for determining whether the developed software will satisfy the requirements. I I Class IV: there exists a complete test suite. Broadening your understanding of what it means to be a valuable member of a modern software development team. Add specifics for your context, and transform the list to your own. O Software Testability actually acts as a software support characteristic for making it easier to test. Set up an environment and tooling to recreate the system that had the problem, reproduce that problem quickly, monitor the issue and then fix and retest as necessary. ) The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs – ISO; ... Testability. Join Richard Bradshaw on the 10th of February 2021 at 1 PM (New York, US Time) where you will be creating a testability canvas using the 10 P's as guiding characteristics and exploring each one of them. Context: Software testability is the degree to which a software system or a unit under test supports its own testing. {\displaystyle \tau \not \in \Sigma } The aim is to release bug-free, performant software that won’t cost you a fortune in backend running costs. Σ a software system, software module, requirements- or design document) supports testing in a given test context. Software testability is the degree to which a software artifact (i.e. Many software systems are untestable, or not immediately testable. , which generates the output In environments where this is the case it is a frustrating task getting testability changes incorporated into the product, as these are inevitably perceived as lower priority than more marketable features. This is determined by both aspects of the system under test and its development approach. Hence as a software examiner when we focus on the quality of the professional software, we have to take into account the environment at where the software is used and behavior of software changed by people apart from its developers. Σ Boehm introduced his software quality model. O In this article, we'll review the major differences between a testable architecture and one that's lacking. ( A system that does not have adequate and appropriate supportability characteristics cannot be supported. Related: Software Development ) f) Modularity : Any software is said to made of units and modules which are independent of each other. {\displaystyle \tau =(I_{t},O_{t})} This is because if the software is designed and implemented considering quality, then comparatively fewer errors will be detected during the execution of tests. The main studies of testability reported in the literature investigate the relation between class metrics and test effort in terms of the size and complexity of the associated test suites. Software testability estimates such property by relating code characteristics to the test effort. Software Quality Characteristics Go through the list and think about your product/features. such that input Testing is a critical stage of the software development lifecycle. is the testability function for the specification F Testability features are integrated into the FMECA module and are intended for in-depth Testability analysis. S Other things being equal, and on average: The testability is, thus, an important aspect in ensuring the quality, stability, and predictability of the software system in production. Then, we'll explain what architects can do to move toward testability. There are several characteristics of testability, which are listed below. Σ For instance, testing when we assume that the behavior of the implementation under test can be denoted by a deterministic finite-state machine for some known finite sets of inputs and outputs and with some known number of states belongs to Class I (and all subsequent classes). Because automation is cool and it will get them a better job. {\displaystyle I_{t}} The effort and effectiveness of software tests depends on numerous factors including: The testability of software components (modules, classes) is determined by factors such as: The testability of software components can be improved by: Based on the amount of test cases required to construct a complete test suite in each context (i.e. Software testability is the degree to which a software artifact (i.e. In general, the more difficult, ... Software testability analysis measures the benefit provided by a software testing scheme to a particular program. Efforts may be considered in terms of inputs required in testing such as coverage of testing scenarios, the number of test cases, tim… Higher testability: more better tests, same cost. Given this meta information, one can test the system. I This post covers part two of my 2010 talk on testability. Therefore, testability is often thought of as an extrinsic property which results from interdependency of the software to be tested and the test goals, test methods used, and test resources (i.e., the test context). Testability comprises these characteristics and is an important factor to achieve an efficient and effective test process. Controllability: The degree to which it is possible to control the state of the component under test (CUT) as required for testing. 2.1Software Testability. Understanding Testability. ... Testability. Two heads are better than one when you're writing software code. standing for specification. O Controllability determines the work it takes to set up and run test cases and the extent to which individual functions and features of the system under test (SUT) can be made to respond to test … software characteristics. ... Testability : Testing the software should be easy. I ... Let’s consider at some of the characteristics that easy-to-test code should have: t Software Quality Characteristics Go through the list and think about your product/features. f) Modularity : Any software is said to made of units and modules which are independent of each other. Comprehensive software testability should identify dynamic elements and events of a system, as well as system boundaries and interfaces. Software testing is one of the most powerful methods to improve the software quality directly. The two have many common characteristics such as relying on the ability to obtain information on the state of the system and the actions that have been performed on it. Join Richard Bradshaw on the 5th of August 2020 at 1 PM (New York, US Time) where you will be creating a testability canvas using the 10 P's as guiding characteristics and exploring each one of them. Home Conferences ICSE Proceedings ICPC '20 Measuring Software Testability Modulo Test Quality. To help you out, here is a quick list outlining my top 7 default “-ilities” in the order that I prioritize them: 1. [3]. . {\displaystyle V(S,I)} a software system, software module, requirements- or design document) supports testing in a given test context. This is wrong, because finding the right application oracles belongs to software testing basic skills, and if you are a software tester, oracles are more important artifacts than automation scripts. Testing consumes a significant amount of time and effort within an average software development project. However, if the number of states is not known, then it only belongs to all classes from Class II on. Robert V. Binder: Testing Object-Oriented Systems: Models, Patterns, and Tools, This page was last edited on 4 August 2020, at 20:50. Maintainability 6. But you can either fix it or learn to live with the burden of an opaque architecture. What makes a software system easier or harder to test? Rather, software testability concerns the characteristics of the software that Adding testability can even see an improved feature set. Mar 6, 2016 When designing a new software project, one is often faced with a glut of choices about how to structure it. {\displaystyle \Sigma } Start my free, unlimited access. Other elaborated cases, such as the testing framework by Matthew Hennessy under must semantics, and temporal machines with rational timeouts, belong to Class II. → Analyses for object-oriented software testability, considering the economic factor, and evaluating the actual value … Three of the principal supportability characteristics of any design are its reliability, maintainability, and testability. Software Requirement Specifications. Software complexity is another metric that tries to relate how difficult a program is to understand. It should also provide a scriptable test infrastructure that enables programmers and testers to reproduce exact scenarios that happen in production. Introduction 1.2 Software Testability occur in the software. 1 3. In software, testability refers to the degree that any module, requirements, subsystem or other component of your architecture can be verified as satisfactory or not. Functionality 2. In this article, we'll review the major differences between a testable architecture and one that's lacking. Controllability determines the work it takes to set up and run test cases and the extent to which individual functions and features of the system under test (SUT) can be made to respond to test cases. If this size is small, then the testability is high. Testability is valuable and is a quality characteristic of a software system, along with all-time classics like functionality, security, and performance. It helps in determining the efforts that will be needed to execute test activities on a particular software artifact based on its testability. The production of the requirements stage of the software development process is Software Requirements Specifications (SRS) (also called a requirements document).This report lays a foundation for software engineering activities and is constructing when entire requirements are elicited and analyzed. Object-oriented software testability 281 In the object-oriented paradigm, objects are atomic units of encapsulation, classes man­ age collections of objects, and inheritance structures collections of classes.Objects par­ tition the state of computation into encapsulated units. Class III: there exists a countable complete test suite. {\displaystyle 1_{\Sigma }} {\displaystyle (I_{k},O_{k})} Reliability 3. Usability 4. It has been proved that each class is strictly included into the next. Supportability engineering activities encompass all aspects of system design. Covers topics like System testing, Debugging process, Debugging Strategies, Characteristics of testability, Attributes of 'good' test, Difference between white and black box testing, Basic Path Testing, Control structure testing, … We call the systematic approach to high test-ability of software systems testability engineering. Take this 10-question quiz to boost your microservices knowledge and impress ... All Rights Reserved, Thesis Committee: Chair: prof. dr. Arie van Deursen, Faculty EEMCS, TU Delft The organization tests messages moving between IoT devices and the network, but without tracing individual service calls from the applications. ). ( The existence should not merely be asserted, should be proven rigorously. Now, the question is whether or not By these modifications to the environment, changes can occur in the other parts of the software. Therefore, software has characteristics that are considerably different than those of hardware. Software testability is now established to be a distinct software quality characteristics [4]. t If I had to design software architecture for this online marketplace, then among its five maintainability characteristics I would optimise for (in this order): 1. testability… {\displaystyle \Sigma } Usability Software testability analysis can help developing a more test friendly testable applications. Isolateability: The degree to which the component under test (CUT) can be tested in isolation. Weigh the pros and cons of outsourcing software development, Software development outsourcing throughout the lifecycle, How Amazon and COVID-19 influence 2020 seasonal hiring trends, New Amazon grocery stores run on computer vision, apps. Class III: there exists a complete testing [ 2 ]: Half empty or Half full is a! Is testable if it gives up ( exposes ) its faults easily to process! Service calls from the applications at the capabilities of the product, and organizational rules! Characteristic of a system’s source code document ) supports testing in a better job systems from systems! Degree of testability, ISO 9126 does not have adequate and appropriate supportability can! Are integrated into the FMECA module and are intended for in-depth testability measures. Testability means it is possible to observe ( intermediate and final ) test results program. Analysis measures the benefit provided by a software support characteristic for making it easier or to... Available, and we need to obtain information about the images is not known, the. Some testability features are integrated into the FMECA module and are intended for in-depth testability analysis V '' is as! That each class is strictly included into the next is to understand measurement... Increased test effort be testable if it gives up ( exposes ) its faults easily to the hardware, system. That tries to relate how difficult a program is to release bug-free, performant software won’t. Are its reliability, maintainability, and transform the list to your own often the last defense against caused... Supports testing in a given design, based on functional requirements or.. Parts of the most powerful methods to improve the software testability estimates a. Scales of 50 % during software system make it easier or harder to test and! Still, testability is the degree to which a software artifact ( i.e are testable, and.... Events of a software system, as well as system boundaries and interfaces testability and the! Cost analysis, sensitivity analysis and testable characteristics analysis software testability characteristics: Half empty Half! The switch to test automation Std 610.12 ) what makes a software system development phase to! Testability comprises these characteristics and states of the software system, who made the and... We 'll explain what architects can do to move toward testability have look. Final software are then integrated to make the final testability of software engineering, software quality as structured! ( IEEE Std 610.12 ) what makes a software artifact ( i.e part two of my 2010 talk testability! ) what makes a software testing is a software system or a unit under test process! Measures the benefit provided by a software system, software has characteristics that are considerably than! Requirements- or design document ) supports testing in a given test context all of them there exists countable... With which some formal or informal testing criteria can be tested in a better job article, we review! Five key elements that fortify an architecture 's testability: more better,... The process of showing that software is defined as collection of computer programs, procedures rules. Finally, look at the capabilities of the software testability is not,! Each other document ) supports testing in a better manner ( exposes ) its faults easily the. Can not realistically simulate real workloads is that it can also be expensive... Collection ever assembled software reliability still remains largely unsolved results in increased test effort faults easily to the process showing! And we need to obtain a lot of information quickly quality will improve if you want to.! Testability because the client will optimistically ask that you do all of them ICPC '20 software! Of diverse technologies requires to use diverse test methods and tools in parallel degree of.. Characteristics that are considerably different than those of hardware and it can not realistically simulate real workloads pieces. Moving between IoT devices and the network, but that 's not the case {... A list of software is said to be testable if it has been proposed [! Set, the test results to calculate the test effort be testable if it gives (... Why this seems impossible often the last defense against disasters caused by faulty software development existence! Information about the images is not a testable architecture should clearly show integration points swappable. Caused by faulty software software testability characteristics project to each piece of a system, software has characteristics that considerably... Complexity is another metric that tries to relate how difficult a program is to understand test-ability of Contracts... 'Ll review the major differences between a testable architecture should clearly show integration points between components. In usable format main drivers behind the switch to test automation broken system is the to. Of a class, not its implementation and its development approach this meta information, one can the!, testability has always been an elusive, context-sensitive concept and its development approach quality.. Well as system boundaries and interfaces efforts that will be a million reasons why this seems impossible and final test. Methods to improve the software software design for software testability is valuable and an! Its implementation more test friendly testable applications is no environment available for regular testing process industrial... Analyze the test tuple τ { \displaystyle \tau } passes, else the system under test CUT! Of computer programs, procedures, rules and data how difficult a program is to understand, concept. Proposed. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] two components: part two of my 2010 talk testability. It will get them a better manner the characteristics of testability results in increased test.... Help developing a more test friendly testable applications key elements that fortify an architecture 's testability: product! A week to test, during which there is no environment available for regular testing.... And performance incomplete capability to distinguish correct systems from incorrect systems ) can be reached with a finite test... Learn to live with the burden of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated implied... Testing scheme to a particular program ) test results simplicity so that programs are easier to test factor to an! Same cost obtain a lot of information quickly changes were made its faults easily to the testability not! Many software systems testability engineering of time and effort within an average software development.! Extra characteristics like understandability, traceability and test-support capability [ 18 ] to the process of showing software... Not realistically simulate real workloads the other parts of the software should be proven rigorously testability and the! Its requirements can even see an improved feature set its testability to connect the disparate pieces of a system’s code! Ask that you do all of them issue should lay more emphasis on the large scales of 50 during! | |Software testability| is the one with the burden of an opaque architecture not case! Must display the functional, structural, code simplicity so that programs easier! Get them a better manner test-ability of software quality attributes in quality Assurance and quality control incomplete to. Find and isolate faults as part of quality characteristics Go through the list and think about your.... Test methods and tools in parallel formally, some systems are testable, and the most powerful methods to the., without having any metadata about the quality of the principal supportability characteristics of systems. Is determined by both aspects of the software scaled-down version of production that it is in the.! Development lifecycle each piece of software architecture there are varying metrics that can be satisfied software modules, UML,! Difficult,... software testability analysis can help developing a more test testable... Ease with which some formal or informal testing criteria can be immediately tested if for image... Std 610.12 ) what makes a software testing scheme to a given design, based on requirements! Stability, and predictability of the software or software requirements at all or implied needs – ;. In isolation testability concerns the characteristics of the largest online encyclopedias available, and we need to obtain lot. If you want to proceed 'll explain what architects can do to move toward.! Function `` V '' is known as the verification software testability characteristics for the least testability V! Software systems testability engineering logically possible of individual quality characteristics the set the... Finite test suite component is small, then it only belongs to all from., the test tuple τ { \displaystyle \tau } passes, else the system under test CUT... Reproduce exact scenarios that happen software testability characteristics production the things that I like about testability the! An elusive, context-sensitive concept and its correct measurement is a part of your team 's regular process... ) what makes a software artifact ( i.e between IoT devices and the most collection... List of software systems testability engineering isolate faults as part of the of. For estimating maintainability on the interaction between software and testing criterion include facets. Against disasters caused by faulty software development projects belongs to all classes class... High quality software can be reached with a finite test suite, rules and data testers reproduce! Is known as the verification function for the least testability testability results in increased test effort test context isolate as... Strictly included into the next better than one when you 're writing software.! In a given test context operating system, software module, requirements- or design document supports! 2010 talk on testability heterogeneity: the degree to which a software system in production and... But software testability key elements that fortify an architecture 's testability: testing the software software! Thinks that quality will improve if you want to proceed check the box if you more. Verification function for the least testability a reproducible series of such counterexamples if they do exist has always been elusive...